South Sudan



South Sudan, the world’s newest state,  is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa bordering Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the South, Democratic Republic of the Congo to south west, and the Central African Republic to north west. South Sudan became the world’s newest country in July 2011 after gaining its independence from Sudan following over 50 years of civil war.

About South Sudan: (from the CIA World Factbook)
Area: 644,329 sq km, slightly smaller than Texas

Population: 11,562,695 (July 2014 est.)

Median age: 16.8 years

Capital: Juba

Incumbent President: Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit

Ethnic Groups: Although South Sudan has about 64 tribes, the dominance majority are the Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Toposa, Acholi, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, according 2011 estimates.

Religion: Animist, Christian, with Muslim minority.

GDP: $23.31 billion (2014 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,000 (2014 est.)

Unemployment: with the resumption of civil war, and the government being the major employer, unemployment rate is very rampant. The exact distributions are yet to be obtained.

Other Facts: partly from CNN Library.

Despite harboring over 75% of the known Sudanese oil reserves, one of the largest in the continent, South Sudan is poverty-stricken and war-torn.

A demilitarized, jointly monitored Common Border Zone has been established between Sudan and South Sudan to ease tensions regarding the oil-rich Abyei region.

January 1, 1956 – Sudan gains its independence after an agreement between the United Kingdom and Egypt.

March 27, 1972 – The signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement ends 16 years of civil war between the northern Khartoum forces and southern Anyanya rebels. Part of the agreement includes the creation of the autonomous region of South Sudan, with Juba as its capital.

1977 – Oil is discovered in southwestern Sudan. Civil war in the 1980s and 1990s prevents much exploration or development of the oil deposits.

1980s – Prolonged droughts put pressure on water and farming resources.

May 1983 – Kerbino Kwanyin Bol (bor) and William Nyuon Bany (Ayod) fired the first bullets that led to formation of Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/SPLM). Col. John Garang de Mabior led SPLM/SPLA against the government regimes, re-igniting the civil war. The South and other regions (Nuba Mountain and Darfur) fight against the government’s proposal to re-divide the region and the imposition of an Islamic law and militaristic rule.

1989 – The United Nations airlifts famine relief to both sides during the civil war.

1991 – The SPLM/SPLA rebel movement splits along ideological lines – Separation and Unity. While Dr. Riek Machar Teny (SPLM-Nasir) led the call for Self determination (separation), Dr. John Garang de Mabior of SPLM-Torit fights for Unity.

January 25, 1992 – Frankfurt Statement.

1992  –  Peace delegations in Abuja Unification of the SPLM factions.

26th May 1992 – Sudanese Peace conference, Abuja I Communique.

25th May 1993 – Nairobi Peace Talks , Joint Communique.

October 22, 1993 – Washington Declaration.

10 November 1993 – Umma Party on Self-Determination in the Sudan – a Discussion Paper.

6th January 1994 – Common Agenda for IGADD Peace Talks.

20 May 1994 – IGADD Declaration of Principles.

June 26-28, 1994 – Resolutions on Bonn Conference by Sudanese Opposition Parties and Movements.

December 12, 1994 – Political Agreement between the Umma Party and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/SPLA) on Transitional Arrangements and self-determination, Chukudum.
27 December 1994 – Declaration of Political Agreement, Asmara, Eritrea.

March 27, 1995 – Sudan’s government calls for a two month cease-fire at the behest of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

June 1995 – Conference of the National Democratic Alliance on Fundamental Issues, Asmara,

1995 – Establishment of a Pan African Commission on the right of self-determination in Africa.

13 July 1995 – South Sudan: The Struggle of the people for their inalienable right of self- determination,

27 April, 1997 – South Sudan Independent Movement/Army (SSIM/A), and other political parties, signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement (KPA) with the Sudanese government.

15 July, 1998 – May 1999: The SPLA calls a three month cease-fire due to regional famine, allowing U.N. supplies to reach famine victims. The cease-fire is extended until government bombs attack two cities in the South.

2002 – South Sudan Independent Movement/Army, the Sudan People Defense Force, under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny, resumed peace talks on Reunification with the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army, under the leadership of Dr. John Garang de Mabior in Nairobi. SPLM/SPLA (torit) maintains status quo but accepts to reintegrate Dr. Riek Machar, his leadership and his vision of Self Determination into SPLM/SPLA ranks and files.

January 9, 2005 – The Comprehensive Peace Agreement is signed by representatives from the North and the South. Part of the agreement includes independence for southern Sudan within six years and that Islamic law would not apply there.

April 11-15, 2010 – Sudan holds multi-party elections for the first time in 24 years. Salva Kiir Mayardit is elected president of southern Sudan with 93% of the vote.

January 9-15, 2011 – Sudanese people vote in a referendum to secede or remain part of a unified Sudan. Sudanese nationals in the South, North, and in several foreign countries, including Australia, Canada, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and the United States cast votes.

February 7, 2011 – The Southern Sudan Referendum Commission announces that 98.83% have voted for separation from the North. U.S. President Barack Obama declares Washington’s intention to recognize South Sudan as an independent state in July, when the Comprehensive Peace Agreement is scheduled to end.

March 2011 – Violence breaks out in south Sudan between soldiers and rebel groups, South Sudan  Liberation Army(SSLA) led by Maj. Gen. Peter Gatdet Yaka, and followed by South Sudan Democratic Movement(SSDM) led by Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony, and COBRA led by Gen. David Yau Yau. The rebel groups fight against corruption, leadership failure to install democracy, rule of law, and free and fair elections.

April 27, 2011 – In a speech on state television, President Omar al-Bashir claims the disputed oil-rich region of Abyei on behalf of the North.

May 22, 2011 – The United Nations condemns the violence in Abyei.

May 31, 2011 – The African Union announces that Sudan and South Sudan have reached an agreement over Abyei, in which a demilitarized, jointly monitored Common Border Zone is established.

June 5, 2011 – Fighting between the northern Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army of southern Sudan erupts near Kadugli, the capital of oil-rich Southern Kordofan state. The United Nations also reports violence in neighboring Blue Nile and Unity states.

June 15, 2011 – The United Nations says that 102,000 people have fled from the disputed region of Abyei.

June 20, 2011 – Representatives from Sudan and South Sudan sign an agreement calling for the immediate withdrawal of Sudanese troops from Abyei and for joint supervision of the disputed region.

July 9, 2011 – South Sudan becomes an independent nation, with a population of approximately eight million people.

July 14, 2011 – Becomes the 193rd member nation of the United Nations.

July 29, 2011 – South Sudan is admitted to the African Union.

September 8, 2011 – According to U.N. officials, the governments of Sudan and South Sudan reach an agreement that will allow the withdrawal of their troops from the disputed border region of Abyei.

October 2011 – In his first visit to Khartoum since South Sudan’s independence, President Salva Kiir meets with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to “reach final solutions” to address continuing differences between their countries.

January 23, 2012 – South Sudan shuts down oil production after accusing Sudan of stealing $815 million of its oil. Sudan says it confiscated the crude to make up for unpaid fees to use the pipeline and processing facilities in its territory.

February 10, 2012 – During talks mediated by the African Union, Sudan and South Sudan sign a nonaggression pact aimed at bringing peace to the border region.

April 12, 2012 – South Sudan forces claim the oil fields in the town of Heglig, which account for about half of Sudan’s oil production.

April 20, 2012 – South Sudan announces the withdrawal of its troops from the contested, oil-rich area of Heglig. Sudan claims that the South Sudan troops were “forced to withdraw.”

May 2012 – President Salva Kiir writes letters to more than 75 government officials and to eight foreign governments in an attempt to recover $4 billion lost to corruption. “If funds are returned, the government of the Republic of South Sudan will grant amnesty and keep your name confidential,” writes Kiir in a letter sent to former and current “senior” officials.

May 30, 2012 – The U.N. peacekeeping mission confirms the full withdrawal of the Sudan Armed Forces from the disputed Abyei region but adds that Sudanese armed police forces remain in the area.

August 4, 2012 – African Union officials announce that negotiating teams from Sudan and South Sudan have agreed to end a dispute on oil payments to allow the resumption of southern oil exports through Sudan’s territories.

September 27, 2012 – Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir sign a deal to resume oil exports and establish a demilitarized zone and principles of border demarcation but do not reach a deal on the status of Abyei, a disputed region claimed by both countries.

January 6, 2013 – Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir agree to temporary arrangements for the oil-rich Abyei region.

March 2013 – Major political differences between President Salva Kiir and his deputy, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, begin to surface.

March 2013 – President Salva Kiir reforms the army; removes over 150 military and police generals and put them on reserve list. The major reason was economic recession but political analysts cite political differences within the SPLM/SPLA.

March 8, 2013 – Defense ministers from Sudan and South Sudan sign an agreement to soon withdraw their respective military forces from the 14-mile-wide demilitarized zone between the countries.

May 2013 – SPLM fails to hold its National Liberation Council meetings.

May 2013 – President Salva Kiir strips off his Deputy’s “delegatory” powers.

July 2013 – President Salva Kiir dissolves the cabinet and removes his long-term deputy, Dr. Riek Machar Teny. The president also removes the SPLM Secretary General, Cde. Pagan Amum Okiech, from his position and bars him from leaving the country or speaking to the media.

August 2013 – President Salva Kiir announces his new lean cabinet. Parliament rejects appointment of Telar Ring Deng as the new minister of justice on his credentials.

November 2013 – President Salva Kiir dissolves the ruling party, SPLM, and declares all positions, except the position of the chairman, vacant. The president also warns to dissolve the parliament and the new cabinet.

Dec 06, 2013 – Dr. Riek Machar Teny, Pagan Amum, Rebecca Garang de Mabior and other reformists hold a press conference and schedules a public rally.

Dec 09 2013 – Government delegation, led by James Wani Igga, hold a press conference to encounter the the Dec 6 conference.

December 15, 2013 – Deadly clashes begin, which President Salva Kiir later calls a failed coup attempt by soldiers loyal to sacked deputy Riek Machar. Days later, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs says 500 died and 800 were wounded in the fighting.

December 23, 2013 – The U.S. military’s Africa Command announces it is positioning 150 Marines in Djibouti in East Africa to be able to respond should conditions in South Sudan deteriorate even more. On the 24th, 50 of these Marines are moved closer, to Entebbe, Uganda, and on January 3, Marines evacuate about 20 U.S. Embassy staff members from Juba.

December 24, 2013 – The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to authorize 5,500 additional troops to bolster its mission to protect civilians.

January 6, 2014 – Talks between South Sudan’s government and rebels begin in Ethiopia, to resolve the three-week long violence that left more than 1,000 people dead and forced 200,000 from their homes.

January 11, 2014 – Between 200 and 300 women and children, fleeing violence in South Sudan, die when an overloaded ferry capsizes near Malakal.

January 23, 2014 – The South Sudanese government and rebels sign a cease-fire, which calls for an immediate end to all military operations and for the protection of civilians. The cease-fire agreement goes into effect on January 24.

February 18, 2014 – The U.N. peacekeeping mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) reports of renewed fighting in Malakal between pro- and anti-government forces, despite the cease-fire signed in January.

March 2014 – The United Nations says that more than a million people have fled their homes since the conflict began in December 2013, including 803,200 internally displaced.

March 17, 2014 – Militants attack a U.N. peacekeepers’ base in Bor, capital of the Jonglei state. At least 48 people are dead after the militants use rocket-propelled grenades to breach the base, where peacekeepers have been sheltering nearly 5,000 civilians.

February 21, 2015 – The United Nations says 89 children have been abducted from a South Sudanese School by Government militia led by a government general, Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony.

March 05, 2015 – The Principle delegations led by President Salva Kiir and Dr. Riek Machar Teny fail to reach the dateline to sign a peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to end the conflict.

April 2015 – Two Government factions fight one another in Malakal, Upper Nile State. The Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony, the former SSDM militia leader, seize Malakal from the government troops.

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