By Bol Garang,


President Salva Kiir and his former Deputy Dr Machar during Referendum 2011 (file photo)
President Salva Kiir and his former Deputy Dr Machar during Referendum 2011 (file photo)

November 29, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — South Sudan is one of 54th African nations located on Eastern side of the continent, it border Sudan to the North, Ethiopia to the East, Kenya to the Southeast, Uganda to the South, Congo to the Southwest, Central Africa Republic to the West. It’s a world youngest nation who gained it independent three years ago from the Arabs in Sudan after a long 21 years of the conflict in Africa since 1983-2005. The African longest war terminated on peace covenant known as Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in Naivasha a suburb of Nairobi City, capital city of Kenya. The CPA permitted Southern region a Semi-Autonomous for the periods of six years and after that length Southerners would decide whether to persist as part of the old Sudan or to form their own independent nation supported by Referendum.

South Sudanese have tormented for numerous decades commenced from the annexation period of English and persistent by Arabs until war spewed in Torit in 1955. The Torit civil war had gave birth to Anynya one before and after independent of Sudan from Anglo-Egyptian in 1956. The war had affected many South Sudanese in one-way or another. However, Southerners skirmished for many years using guerrilla war until Addis Ababa peace agreement in 1972. The besmirched of peace agreement by Arabs government had given Southerners an alternative to combats Arabs again in Sudan to freed themselves from Islamic rules. Therefore, the belligerent that gave birth to SPLM/A was started in Mading Bor in 1983 and SPLA was virtually invaded by Arabs but they absconded to Ethiopia where they structure SPLM/A including it manifestos.

Early in 2011 the Southerners conducted a prosperous referendum where they voted 98 precents in favour of secession from the Arabs in North Sudan and early July a big merriment initiates in every State in the Country. On the 9th July 2011 the world record was broken given South Sudan a fully independent nation named as Republic of South Sudan something indigenous Africans in South Sudan never fragrance in their History in Sudan. The Country was hasty acknowledged by international Community including UN, EU, US, AL, China and Israel. It was also established as a member of United Nation (UN), Northern Corridor (NC), and Great Lake region, African Union (AU), World Bank (WB) and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) etcetera. Hence, after world media announces that the country has become the world promptest growing country in 21th century and it capital City Juba has become world hastiest growing city and occupied top ten of the world expensive cities also the city become second top expensive cities in Africa after Angola’s capital Luanda.

The Corruption, nepotism, discrimination, and egoism have become prompt from the top to bottom given government officials and private partners high priority to embezzled $4 billions US Dollars in the new nation. The country which it revenues mostly come from oil was given high pressure from the spectators mostly United States of America and other donors in the country because government whose 98% of the budge come from oil revenue have paid deaf ears to people of South Sudan who needs services to be delivered to them. The ordinary citizens wounded Persons, Veterans soldiers, Widows, Orphans, Disable, Army etcetera have suffered in the country.


However, after the jumbles reached the sky everyone has become assertive and wants to lead the country not because they’re qualify to do good things to the ordinary people but to lead so that a person could loot million of dollars in the country. Thus, quarrels begun in SPLM party where four contestants have raised their voices high to challenges party leader Mr Salva Kiir Mayardit. Subsequently, they four have seen that they couldn’t lead at ones they decided to group themselves into groups. After that segmentation they conducted exclusive meeting where they come up with SPLM party to be transformed and they nominated Riek Machar to be their tough voice in the game because of his powers as party deputy chairperson after Kiir Mayardit.

The discrepancy went on and on between the reformists led by Riek Machar and SPLM ordinary members led by Kiir Mayardit until Reformist approved to do rally on December 6th thereafter rally the tautness vibrated high. Therefore, high tension has reached red line, the country has stormed by civil war, which started in 15th December as power struggle within SPLM political party between the long times former Vice Riek Machar Teny sacked in July 2013 against his constitutional president Salva Kiir Mayardit. The fighting has left more than ten thousands of people dead, hundreds of thousands of people missing and million of people displaced to neighbouring countries and others have ensnared in internal displaced camps (IDPs).

The people are now misery in Refugee and IDPs camps due to the conflict in the world youngest nation. The survivors of mid December will never disremember the hard lives they have been through after the independent. Although, peace comes today, reconciliation sturdy job people and will take much time for the communities to comprehend themselves because the war that commenced in Juba as power struggle has shredded three States of Great Upper Nile apart between the Dinka, Nuer and other tribes in the region. Much need to be done to allowed coexistence, peace, stability and development in the country.


The conflict was like few minutes exchanged of guns between the presidential guards in the heckle in Juba but on the following day the security commander of presidential guard and “Gelbeny” Mr Marial Chenuong ordered his security and militia to leaves their constitution mission and gyrated door to door rummaged tortures and exterminated innocent inhabitants based on tribal lines mainly on Nuer tribe in their suburbs of residents and included some of Dinkas identified like Nuer because of their coexistence and culture similarities mainly Dinka Hol and Nyarweng of Duk County. Besides that, the Gelbeny went on looted, raped, damaged properties and massacre sustained like no tomorrow without mercy on ordinary citizens of South Sudan.

Following the interminable night in Juba, the Legitimate president Salva Kiir Mayardit went on his television known as (SSTV) and publicised that Riek Machar the former vice president has staged failed coup attempt in the country and he’s on run. Therefore, the special security force of President Kiir Mayardit known as Gelbeny mean to (protect president) Kiirdit went on and collected 11 SPLM politicians in their houses suspected to have political connection with former vice president because of 6th Dec SPLM rally they made about the reform of the Party manifesto.

Nevertheless, I don’t why did security forces left some officials from Bhar el Ghazal region that where in the conference including Michael Makuei Lueth left without an arrest? How could people designed coup and slept in their homes when fighting has started? People need to have common sense or to speak like mature people sometime. Thereafter, the proclamation the Gelbeny persistent door-to-door searched for Nuer and Dinka of Great Upper Nile region but subtracted (Dinka Bor of Bor County) because of Michael Makuei Lueth and Kuol Manyang Juuk, since they were the main engineers of replicated coup.

Furthermore, the Minister of information and broadcasting Michael Makuei Lueth included his unpleasant mouth saying that Nyandeng de Mabior former first lady of the country, the widow and the wife of the country founder and the father of nation John Garang de Mabior is “under house arrest” something flabbergasted Mama Nyandengdit. Additionally, he added that, started from “Maar of Twic East County up to Nuer territories are with rebels no need to protect them.” Wow, that announcement made everything nastiest on Twi, the Gelbeny went on targeting Dinka Twic East of Twic East county and Dinka Hol, Nyarweng of Duk county and Dinka Pandang of Pigi county in Jonglei State, Unity State and some other part in Upper Nile state together with Nuer as big rebels or antagonists of the nation.


Furthermore, after Riek Machar runs for his safety into special location within the country under protection of Hilde Johnson of UNMISS. Peter Gadet Yak, Riek Machar toughest cousin and all time rebel from Nuer heard that news about his Nuer tribe been slaughtered like chicken in Juba by Dinka militia men and some other Nuer citizens went on and exaggerated that the fighting is between Nuer and Dinka. Thus, Afterthought, Mr Gadet made his announcement of defection to Riek Machar and rebellion started with high potential to toppled Dinka government commanded by Kiir Mayardit.

He started his action by killing by his Deputy commander of Division 8 Mr Ajak Yen, the former well-known freedom fighter and a commander of SPLA during the largest war in Africa between the Arabs and indigenous Africans in Sudan. Mr Peter Gadet unremitting with his arbitrarily killing on his way from Pan Pandior, Pariak to Jonglei capital and his forces captured Jonglei State capital Mading Ngeth Angok known as Bor-Town currently, they had good time massacres Dinkas in Bor Town. On other side of the state the rebels started fighting in Duk County and Wernyol City in Twic East County killing uncounted civilians in those population places.

Riek Machar met Peter Gadet in Mading Bor and they exchanged guns with SPLA of constitutional protection unit in Mading Ngeth Angok for several times thereafter the rebels captured Bor-Town again for the second times. The rebels forces slaughtered thousands of civilians including old, Kids, sicks people in hospitals, churches others people were drown when they were trying to cross White Nile to other side to Golyar of Aweerial County in Lake others went missing without information of where they have gone. Moreover, after White Army the Nuer militia like of Gelbeny of Dinka in Bhar el Ghazal Region heard similar news about fighting as between Nuer and Dinka, hence, their forces started massacre Dinkas in their territories mainly in Akobo, Bentiu and some parts in Upper Nile State.


Facts or Rumours had reached Mr CDR James Chuol Koang of Division 4 in Unity similarly to of Peter Yak and MR CDR announced his defection to Riek Machar groups. Fighting has started the captured and recaptured of Bentiu went on and on until the forces of CDR captured and committed unforgettable atrocities which were condemned and followed closely by the world leaders including UN, EU, US, AU and IGAD. The forces of Mr CDR did the same thing or even worst than massacred of Nuer in Juba, God has mercy but Mr Chuol has no like of Marial in Juba.

The Lou Nuer white Army in Jonglei State made quick connection with other Nuer in Upper Nile State and Unity State plus other Nuer defectors from SPLA, which were defeated in Unity State and they made a big militia training camp in Nasir. Some of the Nuer Militia came from Gambella in Ethiopia, oh big problem in there because there’s no proper identification between Nuer in Ethiopia and Nuer in South Sudan because they have similar contour lines on their forehead.

Misidentification Sometime it’s a big issue between Ethiopian and South Sudanese governments because when Nuer devastated important thing in South Sudan they claims to be Ethiopians and if the same thing happened in Ethiopia they claims to be South Sudanese.

These Nuer, tricked people sometimes that I’m from Gambella in Ethiopia or I’m Jikany Nuer of Nasir in South Sudan it’s confusing anyway, some other Nuer came from Akobo and Nyirol and Uror in Jonglei State plus some of the Gadet defectors from Division 8 in Bor. Thereafter, that quick mobilisation they made an attacked on Upper Nile Capital Malakal, the captured and recaptured of Malakal went on and on main while fighting still on the killing, looting, raping and door to door searched like of Juba, Bor, Akobo and Bentiu is their full time job to none Nuer or whoever they seen as none Nuer in any corner.


During that busy night in Juba the country capital where incident happened, the presidential security guard of Tiger unit and Gelbeny were also busy collecting politicians. The 11 SPLM politicians were collected a lot of things happened on the way. Some security guards were given orders from above to kill those people if they found them but God didn’t make that happen. The security took them to Pieng Deng Kuol house; Pieng is the Chief Inspector General of South Sudan National Police service (SSNPS). Hence, after they were gathered without high commander from Bilpam or senior politicians from the parliament visited them because both detainees are generals in the army and members of parliament.

The ordered came from above (the above is Kiir Mayardit) that they should be taken to prison because they made failed coup attempt in the country. Something surprised all of them! They were taken to prison and you know prisons in South Sudan aren’t like prisons in Western countries. People are given a tea/coffee every morning not real tea or coffee, but a tortures. When you heard about tea in prison in South Sudan never accept because their tea is to beat you up properly.

Therefore, after few weeks in prison in Juba, a lot of pressures from international community including USA, EU, AU and other donors in the country have reached the constitutional president Kiir Mayardit to release those prisoners because they’re not part of coup but Mr president rejected those requests. Moreover, after pressure vibrated high in his blood the president, he ordered his Minister of Justice Paulino Wanawila to release some prisoners and added that to let those tough four remain in Prison because he knows if he releases all of them there’s high chance of him to lose the top position. Thus, those who remained in prison were Pagan Amum, Oyai Deng, Ezekiel Gatkuoth and Dr Majak D’Agoot.

The tough group remained in prison under unhealthy condition for some months and again world leaders wrote a letter to Kiir Mayardit about the release of remaining four political detainees. When he received the letter plus pressures given by other important partners, he replied that the four would go to court. Therefore, the four went on trials, where they give their testimonies in court under the judge Okec Mayen. Some government officials including interior minister Aleu Ayieny Aleu refused lately to give his evidence about the coup attempt.

Therefore, after collection of evidences the judges found that these people who are accused have no connection to the coup. Hence, the judge set date 30th April 2014 as the day result will be released. After President Kiir boys heard that they went to Kiirdit and said everything to him. So the decreed of Constitutional President ordered his Minister of Justice Mr Paulino Wanawila Onango to “stayed the court case” and allow the four to be freed. Hence, on 24th April 2014, the detainees include Pagan Amum, Secretary General of the ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), Majak D’Agoot former Deputy Minister of Defense, Oyai Deng Ajak former Minister of Security and Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth former Ambassador to the United States of America were released.


The peace negotiations in Addis Ababa commenced after fighting has roamed in Greater Upper Nile Region for some weeks without anyone could win the battle and more pressures were coming from the international community, world leaders including UN, EU, US, AU, IGAD and China. The international community did put maximum pressure on former vice Riek Machar who turned rebel leader of SPLM/A in Opposition (SPLM/A in O) and South Sudan constitutional President Salva Kiir Mayardit of SPLM/A.

The talks went on for a while until both leaders signed cassation of hostiles (COH) in January and fighting resumed in Unity and Upper Nile States the following day that fights left ordinary citizens of South Sudan with opened mouths because but both warring parties impugned each other on who started the fights but they have no mercy on civilians. The negotiation was adjourned and resumed again after further consultations were made between both parties by IGAD peace mediators on South Sudan.

When peace talks in Addis Ababa resumed both parties agreed to sign agreement and on the 9th May 2014 the both leaders Riek Machar and Kiir Mayardit came together for the first time since war erupted in 15th December and signed the agreement to permitted neutral regional forces to protects civilians, UN personnel, Human Right watch and Humanitarians services to be delivered to people in needs in Great Upper Nile Region and other neighbouring States but again the warring parties desecrated the agreement in Unity State Bentiu but was clamed through denunciation from world leaders, United nations and international communities.

The peace talk is still on currently and IGAD mediators, civil society, rebels delegation, government delegation, former political detainees delegation are all stationed in Addis Ababa Ethiopia for mission of peace to come to South Sudan. People of South Sudan are thirsty for peace and freedom, stability, coexistence, love and to be in prosperity nation. Let’s pray to God for that peace to be signed in Ethiopia and to be the permanent peace in the Republic South Sudan although I don’t trust Ethiopia agreement.


South Sudanese are very hard to admits their insubstantialities or blunders when ordinary South Sudanese citizens who are now anguish on daily basis tells Kiir Mayardit or Riek Machar that you two leaders have failed our country, they don’t believe or acknowledge that while it’s a fact. South Sudan is “fragile State” in the world according to the world standard base on it policies.

The best these leaders do is to kills those who question like Abraham Diing Chan Awuol but until when will they acknowledge their responsibilities? If they implements peace and reconciliation across the country, good governance with accountability, address security issue, develops Agriculture sector, education sector, health sector, transport sector to connects country capital to all states, counties Payams, develop non-oil revenue and utilizes oil money properly.

Creates employment to the youths, who are roaming in the street Juba and every state in South Sudan, designs policy that will allow all citizens to apply their knowledge based on qualifications they have, create awareness to every individual that their government will do everything possible for the country to move forward. And let examples be in government ministerial to nominate those in wrong positions.

No single person could question their leadership but because the mentioned above and many more have not implements, what do they think ordinary citizens whose parents had sacrifice their lives for this country could say? These leaders need to admit their mistakes or go to their homes and others will lead this country to move forward to achieve it permanent peace, stability and development.


To sum up, South Sudanese civil wars have anguished for many years started from the invasion period of English and continued by Arabs until war begun in Torit in 1955. The Torit war had gave birth to Anynya one before and after independent of Sudan from Anglo-Egyptian in 1956. The war had affected South Sudanese. Nevertheless, Southerners fought for many years using insurrectionary war until Addis Ababa peace agreement in 1972. The dishonoured of peace agreement by Arabs government in Khartoum had given Southerners another reason to combats Arabs in Sudan to free themselves from Islamic rules.

Thus, the war, which gave birth to SPLM/A, was begun in Mading in 1983 and SPLA was almost overrun by Arabs but they fled to Ethiopia where they edifices SPLM/A manifestos. Therefore, after the independent of South Sudan from Sudan on the 9th July 2011, many People seen South Sudan as the failed State in the world in term of development, peace and stability but not citizens are doing their best to lift this country up to

However the failure comes from the government.

South Sudanese government is fraudulent because everyone wants to lead to loots but not to create positive thing in the country.

As war started more than ten thousands lives have gone in the country, the government acting very slowly to address the roots caused of the conflict and way forward for peace, stability, reconciliation and development. Therefore, for that matter citizens need government to hold accountable for death, missing of people, damaged of properties and environment. World leaders, international community, Africa Union, IGAD and other partners need to pressure these two leaders to sign peace agreement. Citizens are fed up on war and the best choice is peace and harmony, they need other people to support them to enhance their standard of living in the country.

Bol Garang “Knowledge is Power”

Bol Garang is a South Sudanese dwell in Australia and can be reached on this email: barabomike@gmail.com

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