Contributor's Opinion

DR. Reik Machar’s in the full swing: for an ethnic Nuer Empire – Part (I)

By Majok Dongwei Akier,

Omaha, Nebraska USA

Dr. Riek Machar speech in Omaha on 10/6/2012
Dr. Riek Machar speech in Omaha on 10/6/2012

April 20, 2016(Nyamilepedia) —– The wonder of South Sudanese and many international observers, with absolute astonishment; why would theirs own son, would always wanted to kills them? Is it a lust for power or searches to create an ethnic Nuer Empire? Well let me uncover the facts behind all these predicaments.   It is known facts by many South Sudanese and International Community that, Dr. Reik Machar Teny had been on and off within SPLM/A people’s liberation movement, since 1991 and recently with in an independence country of South Sudan in 2013. When Reik first defected, from SPLM/A people’s liberation movement in 1991; he accused and labelled Dr. John Garang de Mabior as a “dictator that oppresses the voices of Democracy in the movement”. For this reason; Dr. Reik Machar has to go and formed his Nasir Faction called SSIM (for South Sudan Independent movement), with objectives and goals of creating more democratic movement. Oriented and directed toward the separation and Self-determination agenda from Sudan. However; forming (SSIM) by Dr. Reik Machar, was nothing more than Stratagem and ruse for an ethnic Nuer empire or Kingdom or whatever it maybe, by any means necessary. Reik have had adamant opinion that, the only way to defeats Garang; is to pulverize an ethnic Dinka in Greater upper Nile, by whole or in part to clear way for the fulfillment of the Ngundeang Prophecy and dreams Empire. Indeed, he had had the resolves and determination; to launched massive violent attacks against the Dinka civilians in Greater Upper Nile Region, with hope of occupying and displacing Dinka Civilians, in 1991. Moreover, the first attempts to overthrown Dr. John Garang and with intents to destroy Dinka; did not come to perceptible existence, to his wishes and desires for leadership and power. And thing begins to unraveled from the beliefs of deposing Garang from SPLM/A leadership and to the state of abject despair. So do Reik found himself between the devil and deep blue sea and he had to looks for an ally or someone that could lend him some hand to fight Garang’s forces. In 1997, Reik signed Khartoum Peace Agreement with government of Omar al Bashir; with plan and purpose of gaining military support from Bashir since both had a common enemy: which is Dr. John Garang de Mabior. Reik signed and secured a peace agreement with Bashir and was shore up with wherewithal or financial supports and also given a lethal supports by Bashir government, for 11 years to underpin his forces against Garang’s forces before he switched side. Around 2001, Reik fell apart with Bashir and discontented on how the Khartoum Peace Agreement should be implemented. After he disagree with Bashir, he found himself susceptible and in danger for assassination from Bashir’s cronies and only ways for him to survive is to join SPLM/A for his survival. In 2002 Reik signed what I called the ‘collaborative’ agreement with Garang; promising Garang to join forces against Bashir’s Government with him to liberate Sudan from the Islamic Government and placed with more inclusive government, but only with an ace up on his sleeve. Reik never give up his ambition and a quest for Nuer Empire, he only signed Nairobi Declaration peace agreement because he had nothing else left to loss; after he had long journey without success. He apologized to leadership of SPLM/A in Nairobi for the jumbles he created, and regretted for how he was hoodwinked and bamboozled by Bashir’s Government, in Khartoum Peace Agreement. He told the people of South Sudan who were in the Peace Avenue at that time, that he was there to bury the hatchet with Garang, meaning he is for peace and no more Axes to grind against one another. To no avail, he was only taking a break and just to reactivate his dreams back again in 2013, when time allows. It is basically a fits and starts basis.

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Who is Dr.Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon? (Born 1953) former Guerilla fighter and Zonal commander of then, Western Upper Nile region; is a South Sudanese politician who served as the first Vice President of South Sudan, from its independence in 2011 until his dismissal in 2013. He now leads rebel faction opposing government of South Sudan known as SPLM-IO.

Machar acquired a PhD in mechanical engineering in 1984 and then joined the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005). Riek defected out of the SPLM/A under leadership John Garang in 1991 and formed a different group, the SPLM/A-Nasir or SSIM. In 1997 Riek made a treaty with the Government of Sudan and became head of the government-backed South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF). In 2000 he left the SSDF and formed a new militia, the Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF), and in 2002 swore his allegiance back to the SPLA as a senior commander. After the death of John Garang in July 2005, Riek Machar became vice-president of the autonomous Southern Sudan. He became vice-president of South Sudan on 9 July 2011 when the country became independent, but was dismissed from office by President Salva Kiir Mayardit on 23 July 2013 (according to the public domain records of him).

Nonetheless, the most importance part of who is Reik Machar? And what motivate him to kills his way to SPLM/A leadership then, and to the presidency now in an Independence country of South Sudan: it was that, Ngundeang prophesize and predicted that, one of the Teny Dhurgon’s grandson or heirs who is left handed and gap-teethed, will be preordained for the presidency of Independence South Sudan and formed the Nuer dominance Empire.

Dr. Reik Machar Teny’s defection of 1991

…To pursuit his dreams, of becoming the leaders of preordained ethnic Nuer empire, Reik has to rebels against the SPLM/A and face its head on, with intentions and purpose(s) of destroying the SPLM/A. Reik think, there is no way for him to fulfills the prophecy or apocalyptic of Ngundeang’s divinations, unless he has to face the emerging and existence threats of Dinka’s political and military dominance, leads by Dr.John Garang de Mabior, in order for him to established a kingdom that is free from the threats.

Reik though that, his success will only be determined by military victories against Garang’s forces. To do that; he has to unleashed his White Army (groups of armed civilians with no formal military training) to Dinka heart land, in greater Upper Nile and Bhar el Gazel regions; with the purposes of depriving the mainstream SPLM/A of Dr.John Garang of human resources and natural resources to say the least. And also, as a means to removes the loads off his head from Dinka threats or that seems as stumbling block to his dreams. For him to achieve this, he has to make sure that, his forces had to puts a crushing blow on SPLM/A, under the leadership of Dr. John Garang; by killing whatever his forces perceived and sense as a potential threats to his movement; Anything that, stands on theirs ways; whether human being or animals, whether a civilians or soldiers must be eliminated. Like they says, to destroys something whether a things or groups of people; there is always a process to its. To do so, Reik have to deals with Dinka officers on his army first, before attacking the Dinka nation in whole or in parts.

In the furtherance of this objective, Dr. Reik has to orders his juniors officers on his side to either democides and lynched Dinka officers suspected of allying with Dr. John Garang’s Mainstream SPLM/A under areas of his Controls. To be specifically, in Nasir, Ulang, Waat, Jokew, Akobo and Pagak; he looks at Dinka officers as a fly in the ointments that needs to be taking care of before the ointment is apply to the wound. Most of the Dinka officers who were stationed in the aforementioned areas; were either mass murdered or politicided, by Reik’s men to annihilated threats posed by Dinka officers in his area of controls, once and for all. Cases in point were the killing of overall commander of Jesh el Amer (unaccompanied minors and lost boy as of today) Capt. Kuol Deng Kuol, the son of famous chief of the Abyei: Deng Majok in Nasir 1991. In which the author was under his direct command as jesh el Amer (unaccompanied minors or lost boys as of today) in Pananyang, Nasir County by then; which is now the headquarter of the Latjor State, before Jesh el Amer would be relocated to ketbeek one year later . Kuol and many Dinkas officers suspected to be loyal to Garang, were all collected and detained. Majority of them, were killed and some were tortured by mutilating and cutting theirs significance part of body and later release with trauma of tortures. And also, Killing of Second LT. Nyok Majak from Dinka Panaruu (Kuocgoor section) in Jekou Under the commandeer Kuach Kong. Approximates 53 Dinkas officers were made, to dug theirs graves before they were summary executed on fire squad styles, by Kuachkong’s force under command of Reik. One of officer who happened to survive this killing, find his way to Nasir where he narrated of what had happened in Jekou. He was eventually killed later in Pagak after the Jesh el Amer and Reik himself relocated to Pagak around 1993 by same perpetrators that first attempted to kill him in Jekou. And more Killings ensured in the many areas he controls. For Examples: In Waat, he rounded up and arbitrarily arrested all Dinka officers; including and limited to author’s cousin on the maternal side; SGT.Thiep Kur manyiel and executed them in fire squad styles with PKM machine gun in 1991, under the command of Manyiel Kueth and same scenarios was done, in Ulang county at same time in point. All these killing, were committed by Dr. Reik Machar, to put an end to the threats posed by Dinka officers within his movement.

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After finishing off his mission of exterminating Dinka officers under his areas of controls; he (Reik) ordered his army altogether with white army to; Dinka Ngok Lual Yak land, Dinka Panaruu, Alor Dinka Twi, Athooc, Gok, Hol, Nyarweng, Dinka Paweny, Luac, Rut, Thoi, Dongjol, Ager and Abilang in greater Upper Nile with intentions to kills them in whole or in part because of their an indelible groups memberships of being Dinka. That attacked culminated into what we called today (Bor massacre) which left more than 3 to 4 thousands dead and other hundreds of thousand displaced to the Neighboring countries of Uganda, Ethiopia and Kenya. According to Journeyman Journalist, this causalities estimate was only a ballpark figure; because, no one know for sure, how many had died or missing exactly. It could be high or low. Many atrocities went unreported, especially in Baliet County, Pigi Country, and Melute County and Ruweng County, because the Journeyman Journalist was only directed to Bor massacre sites by leadership of SPLM/A under John Garang. This ethnic cleansing; was orchestrated and planned by Dr. Reik Machar Teny; to eradicate and stamp out the threats posed by Dinka communities in the Greater Upper Nile and in the Great Bhar el Gazel Regions; as a definitive solution. The attacks against Dinka communities in Greater Upper Nile; it was meant to either scared the hell out of them or forced them to submission; from the emerging Kingdom and runs for theirs life to Bhar el Gazel region or wherever else for their survival; where there is major Dinka population. So that, the appearing and surfacing Kingdom will have a rooms to establish her selves; free from the existential threats of Dinka in greater Upper Nile.

In Greater Bhar el Gazel Region, Reik, marshaled and matched approximate 15,000 militants to invaded and occupied Bhar el Gazel in 1996. His aims and plans to attacks Bhar el Gazel region was to suppressed and cuts off a reinforcement to Dr. John Grang’ s forces in Greater Upper Nile and Greater Equatoria regions. Reik believed that, the SPLM/A forces in Upper Nile and Equatoria were limited and easy to be contained. And only ways to denied them reinforcement is to attacks and occupied Bhar el Gazel. On the contrary, the SPLM/A under cdr. Daniel Awet Akot triumph over the forces of Reik Machar and inflicted heavy casualties on them, leaving a survivals in dire desperation and difficulties situations of finding a ways back to Nuer land. It was a desperate attempts kind of attacks. Anyone who survived this battles on Reik forces, only lived to tell the tale of what had happened there and advices anyone who still have a guts to go to Bhar el Gazel for fights not to go. This battle in Bhar el Gazel region, Battle of Wun Mustafa in Baliet County lead by cdr. George Athor, and Battle of Panayagor in MadingBor lead by cdr. Kuol Manyang Juuk and Battle of liing in Ruweng County lead by cdr. Mayiik Jaw Kuol was said to be determinant factors for Reik to forge an ally with Bashir government; for the reason that; he has no capability and ability to defeats Garang’s forces without Bashir helps.

–For goodness’ sake in Dinka Ngok Lual Yak’s land, Khorflus, Atar and Bor; innocents civilians were killed and raped by Reik forces. Theirs property, live stocks were either destroyed or looted by the barbarous forces under the command of Dr. Reik Machar. Anyone who survived the attacks, were left to fend off for themselves and make do with wild fruits or water lilies. And I quote him from the YouTube video saying, after the destruction of Bor By his forces in 1992. Quote “Garang doesn’t like the semblance of democracy in the movement. And anyone who wants to fight me; his fates will be like the fate of those Garang’s soldiers in Bor”. End quote, Reik forces were not, in facts fighting with an army or soldiers in Bor .Reik knew exactly that, his forces were only there just to kills civilians. In order to deprives SPLM/A, under the leadership of Dr. John Garang; from the both human and natural resources, as a part of the Strategies to dismantle the existential threats from Dinka Communities. Which is the source of strengths and power were Dr. John Garang and mainstream SPLM/A get theirs support from. These strategies were well devised, to displace the Dinka in the Greater Upper Nile region, so, that the work for the dreams kingdom could commence.

To make the matter worse, After Reik’s forces attacked and Killed Dinka civilians in Baliet, Khorflus, Atar, Bor and Pariang. Weighting and measuring his strengths and find himself in the wit’s end, he concluded that, his rising Kingdom have no capacity to challenges the existing Dinka threats, whether militarily and politically. And only way for him to defeats existing threats. He has to forge an alliance with main enemy of the South Sudan (the Arab in the North) Sudan government. To no one’s surprise, he signed KPA(Khartoum Peace Agreement with government of Bashir in 1997) with hope of gaining military supports; in order to crash the threats from Mainstreams SPLM/A, under his able leadership Dr. John Garang de Mabior; before establishing the Nuer Empire in greater Upper Nile; as the de facto capital of the Kingdom. Succinctly, the agreement was not genuine peace agreement as it was thought by many, as peace for self-determination as he claimed on his peace documents. It was an agreement of coalitions and affiliations with government of Khartoum. So, he (Reik) and Bashir have to institute unified command to crash the rivalling power and to bring SPLM/A of John Garang to his knees once and for all; with helps of South Sudan’s archenemy (the Arab in the North). Reik was in desperado situations to forge alliance with any devil he could found; because shortly after Nasir Declaration, he (Reik) fell out with one of his political mentor and suspected architect of 1991, Dr. Lam Akol. Briefly after both defected and formed Nasir faction. Theirs different were said to emerged, when both principals started to devised the ways and means for theirs new founded movement. Both have one enemy in common with different political objectives and ideologies. Reik is for Nuer Kingdom whereas Lam is for Shilluk or Chollo Kingdom. The situations got very intense and the formers couldn’t agree on any single policy. Ergo, they both have to splits and formed a separate movement; Reik with SPLM/ Nasir faction or SSIM and Lam with SPLM/A United faction based in Fashoda as Headquarter.

As war dragged on and attacks against Dinka civil populaces intensified, in Ruweng County (Panrieng), Reik ordered his forces from Bentiu to invade and displaced any living things founded in Ruweng County with aims and purposes of annexing Ruweng County into his emerging future Liech State under the Nuer Empire. Reik’s forces found themselves behind the fight ball, with stiff resistance from the forces of Capt. Mayiik Jaw Kuol then and now Gen., under leadership of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. His forces were badly beaten and scattered on swamps of Bhar el naam, leaving many of his forces dead and wounded. Again, after he backed to the drawing board in 1994, he organizes another attack with objective of wiping out the SPLM/A soldiers and Civilians in Pariang area. Reik founded out that, SPLM/A soldiers in Pariang were not playing, but were very serious enough to fight up to the last man standing phrase. Reik realized that, the SPLM/A soldiers in Pariang under Command of Capt. Mayiik Jaw Kuol become an albatross around his neck and thorn in eye for the realization of his dreams Kingdom. It is a force to be reckoned with. One of Reik’s operational Commander Officer, was killed in battle in Pariang County then and now the Capital of the Ruweng State.

However; around 1997-1999, Reik had in facts did gets some military supports from Khartoum government. This military supports and logistics was given to him with conditions to hand over the SPLM/A’s liberated areas under his controls to Bashir’s government. These were; Nasir, Jokew, Waat, Ulang, Bentiu, Adok, Leer, Akobo, Pagak, Mayom and mostly many districts in the greater Upper Nile and Equatoria that were under his controls. And also, to help Sudan government fought off the SPLM/A under Dr. John Garang de Mabior; before his buddy Bashir handed him power over the administration of Southern Sudan; in silver plate as ruler of his dreams Kingdom. This promise would be fulfilled and implemented only, when the SPLM/A under Dr. John Garang is crashed and brought to his knees; by both forces of Reik and his Puppet master Bashir. He was given weapons for his new recruits, ammunitions, fuel for his military vehicles, food for his soldiers and air covers for his soldier by Sudan air forces against Garang’s forces.

Furthermore, Reik and Bashir did joined forces against the SPLM/A, under Dr. John Garang and fought altogether with hopes; to puts the crushing blow on the SPLM/A of Garang, as it was an objective to him and Bashir. While, he was in cahoots’ with Bashir’s government, he was appointed as a head of Southern Sudan government to runs three regional States of Southern Sudan. Seeing this as an opportunity for him, to implement some of his objective, while still on move, he began to create more Counties in Upper Nile Region. These counties were, Mayen, Panyijar, Guit and Koch in Former Unity State, Maiwut and Longechuk in former Upper Nile State (Malakal). At same time, he started to create some names for his future Empire States: Namely, North Leich State and South Leich State, Latjor State, Western and Eastern Bieh States while he was in Khartoum.

On the other side of equation, Dr. John Garang de Mabior knew the objective of Reik and Bashir against his movement; theirs objective is to defeats and destroys the SPLM/A under his leadership. He has no any other options, but to stands his ground. Dr. John Garang knew that, the only hope for the marginalized people of Sudan is him. Any mistake that will leads the movement to its demise; will not be tolerated and this will diminish and erode the hope of the marginalized people of Sudan and their aspirations for freedom, equality, justice and dignity. And the history will never forgive him. So, John Garang has to face Both Reik and Bashir forces around Juba in 1997-2002 with tenacity and resilience. On the other hand, Reik and Bashir realize that, defeating Garang was beyond their pale. Reik began to felts that, is forces were drop in the bucket to defeats Garang’s forces and were outnumbered. And his audacity to defeats and destroys the SPLM/A of John Garang faded away, and the allies started to crumbled. So do Reik, find himself, between the rock and hard place and dreams to forms and establish the Kingdom is beside the point and out of reaches.

To add salt to the wound, around 1997, Reik and others South Sudanese leaders; For Examples, Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, Aron Thon Arok, Kawaja Makuei who were with Reik, started to fell apart thereafter a peace agreement was signed in Khartoum. It was said that, seniority for selecting South Sudan regionals leadership was a factors of the division among the aforesaid leaders. Kerubino is senior than Reik according to the SPLM/A chain of Command and wanted to be chairman of South Sudan Regionals government, which Reik opposed and wanted to leads the Council by himself. Reik knew that, if he allowed Kerubino to take over the South Sudan Councils and leadership; is dreams to establish an ethnic Nuer Empire will be hijacked and cannot be achieved. This power Struggle between Reik’s camp and Kerubino’s camp; put two at loggerhead at each other’s and eventually metamorphosed to enmity between the two. This indifference caused the two to splits and created separate militias both backed by Bashir government.

As thing when from bad to worse, Reik have to file a divorce with Mr. Bashir and formed the SPDF for (Sudan People’s Defense Forces/ Democratic Front in 2000) as independent militias that will fight alongside the Sudan Army forces as coalition’s forces, but not under overall leadership of President Bashir as a commander. This coalitions only survived for 2 years before he divorced Bashir and joined the SPLM/A under Dr. John Garang in Nairobi Kenya in 2002. As I stated above early, Reik only joined the SPLM/A with the ace in the hole, just to take a deep breathes and resume backs his dreams back when situation is conductive for him.

In 2002, Reik appended his signature on Nairobi Declaration Peace Agreement with leadership of SPLM/A under Dr. John Garang. In which he admit the defeats and cry uncle for his 1991 messes. He was welcomes with opened arms and with jubilations back into the people’s liberation army struggle. And he was absorbed with his ranks into people’s movement as senior Commander in the SPLM/A. In 2005 after untimely death of Dr. John Garang from the helicopter Crash on his ways to New Site from Uganda, Reik was appointed as vice President to our current president of South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit for 8 good years before he rebels’ again. From 2005 to around 2011, both men were in good relationship to say the least, before everything began to emerge into the publics attentions. Around 2012, Reik found himself as one of the Big shots with in the Political Bureau and he felts entitled to challenges his boss President Salva Kiir for the party highest sit, which will puts him on right footing to the Presidency.

As Reik’s quest to re-launch his dreams intensifies, around 2011 he advised and ordered one of his sycophant and con artist who happened to be Governor of Unity State by then: Taban Deng Gai, to legislate a Nuer language in Unity State as prerequisites for any officials Job in State. And also, all Radio and news outlet must be broadcasted in Nuer Language. Dinka language in State level is considered as a foreign language and must not be in operations in the State. On the other hand, Dinka Community in Unity State was nowhere to be seen in the State government. Nuer occupied the leadership of state from the Governor, Deputy Governor and Speaker leaving Dinka with nothing, but only with three nonessentials ministers’ positions as symbolic representation in the State. Namely: Ministers of Agriculture, social services and sport and minister of education. This political calculation to marginalize Dinka in Unity State; was meant to forces Dinka in State to either Speaks Nuer language so that, they had an access to State employment opportunities or forces them to leaves the State for their survival. It was an act of assimilation or to go to hell when you are not in compliance with the policy of assimilation.

To be Continue in part (II)

The author is former Jesh el Amer (unaccompanied minor) in tharpham Itang, Ethiopia from 1990-1991 before he was displaced to Nasir, South Sudan, by EPRDF (Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front) when they took over leadership of Ethiopia from Derg Regime (military committee in Amharic) of Mengistu Haile Mariam and resettled back to Ethiopia in 1992-2000. He was refugee in Pinyudo, Ethiopia where he excelled as a Star player of volleyball for Pinyudo district and become Most valuable player (MVP) in 2000 before he resettled in USA at same Year. He based in Omaha, Nebraska USA as of now.

You can reached me through Majokdongwei@gmail.com

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Nyanor April 21, 2016 at 3:42 am

Majok.you would a good south Sudanese writer and historian if you are not a dinka. a matter of time nuer and other south sudanes tribe whom you are killing now will fight and defeat you.

Mary Pal April 21, 2016 at 8:11 pm

Mr. Majok, you sound like you are confused all evidences related to events leading to split in 1991, Khartoum peace agreement and Juba Nuer Massacre December 2013.

First, the split in 1991, it was a vision of the movement, the liberation of the whole Sudan and self-determination for the people of south Sudan. Since, the inception of the SPLM/A, the vision and mission was to liberated whole Sudan and centralization of states, secular states (i.e. decentralization of region and states). Dr. John Garang is pioneering of this vision as the central theme of our movement at the time. So, the split of 1991 was about the vision of self-determination for the people of the south Sudan and democratization of the movement. Dr. Machar was a pioneer of this vision to liberate the south Sudan and founding father of this nation, so it was his vision that we have ended with the Sudan South today. Leader always has a vision and followers can follow.

Second, the KPA was signed to fulfill this vision of the south Sudan, then it is similar agreement that duplicated in Kenya in 2005, so the agreement support the case of south Sudan.

Third, Nuer Massacre December 2013, organized by the Dinka president, Saliva Kiir, Paul Malong, Kuol Manyang and their government to eliminate the ethnic Nuer community.

It has nothing to do with Riek Machar. It is true that Machar was a victim of organize lies about coup attempt, frankly, the perpetrators proven wrong by facts and evidences. South Sudanese expertise and international communities proved that there is no coup in south Sudan. Machar and other group of politicians were demanding change through democratic process in the party and general election by the people of the south Sudan in June 2015. This election process is the nightmare to president, Saliva Kiir who has no popular support from the peoples of south Sudan across the country.Saliva Kiir has to create the war to eliminate the opponents, supporters of democratic change, in order to maintain the power in the country, but he has only succeed in destroying the Nuerland and Chollo kingdoms and massacre its peoples. Machar has no lust of war and power. Now, let us hope the current peace is to prevail and dignity of our people is restored.


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