Part 1 and 2
Honorable members, Regional Block of IGAAD mediating South Sudan Peace.
Honorable both delegations of Government and SPLA/SPLM Rebels participant.
By:- John Juan Dong
Jul 16, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — We are gathered here in this respective hall in the name of our savior Jesus Christ not only to condemn, judge but to also establish where the truth is, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. I would first give my sincere thanks to the firm selected members of Inter-Governmental authority on Development (IGAAD) for their African spirit that has made them to accept solving this planned crisis for over seven years in our new born child country. I still give my thankfulness to the world community in large and especially the Europeans for their parental and keen follow up of our footsteps in establishing whether we are liable to rule ourselves or not. This question if not in the heart of our ruling leaders in Juba, it is in the heart of two million displaced now in UNIMISS Camps, inside and outside the country. Thanks to government of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda for receiving them in their respective soil as they did faithfully and honestly during struggle, and especially when the first movement started 1962.
The Federal Government to be introduced in South Sudan is splendid and courageous as it had been demanded by our first former political national leaders in Juba conferences 1947 as we shall see later. It is the cry of our people at present and especially at this critical political dictatorship and security harassment we are in. However, I have some few observations that might have some importance and need to be emphasized. These observations are not only for the sake of facts recording to keep our history clean but also make it easy for the future generation to benefit and follow our footsteps.
As concerned citizens, we are all aware of the difference within the SPLM Political Bureaus in the first term government of President Salva Kiir that has caused mass killing of thousands of innocent Nuer civilians in Juba capital city of the Republic of South Sudan between 15th December 2013 and January 2014. Though I’m not technically a military professional it is painted all over the wall that the disguised coup has caused extensive killings up to date.
The SPLM is just a political power, but the source secret underlying this influential and dynamic crisis, is the states and local governments’ wealth and power being centralized. English proverb says “too much of anything is bad” Too much money and too much power being centralized in Juba central government city is the cause. Powers whether executive, legal or constitutional are still centralized as they were under 1951 Ordinance and tribal fights are still daily occurrences than before. What type of systems shall make such a chronic disease end? A system that removes elected governors whenever the president decides, as evidenced by the governor of Unity state Rt. General Taban Deng Gai who had won National General Elections by 85.5% and whom he had retired from military active service, and governor of Lake state.
The system where the national palace security talks one language and authorized and dominated by one the tribe! Other tribes thought of it being a deliberate policy of empowering a particular tribe yet the fact is personal behavior. People could not imagine or believe that the high spirit and great joy in which the CPA was received in 2005 could turn into mass graves on the 15th of December 2013 in a capital city of a country. Surprisingly, some dishonest political leaders still deny the massacre! How can states unite in competition when the common interest which is wealth is centralized and exercised by the super power? The period of eight years of central government between 2006 up to date has favored some states with mounted machine guns, heavy arms and sophisticated weapons against others, simply because the police and the attorney Jury are centralized. Consequently, such imbalance in arms attracts and fuels tribal fights and cattle raiding. The system has remained the same as we were before 2005 when there was no freedom of expression, freedom of speech and freedom of information. This lack of freedom of information caused the shooting to death of a young journalist from Dinka Bor, late Izaiah Abraham Deng Ciek in 2012 in Juba capital city to terrorize the rest.
The invisible planners of the disguised coup never conceptualized that this mass killing on Nuer tribe in Juba will extend to Dinka as a curse for them to know the justification of killing innocent human beings. Innocent Shiluk, were found killed or drown without knowing who drawn and killed them, just for Shiluk to commit to memory the historical relationship between them and Nuer of 1886 of Mahdia rule. The invisible planners and executers have not yet acknowledged up to this moment the national capacity forces, the SPLA is regressing to a lower periphery. What kind of precedence do these sequences of unfolding events serve to the history of South Sudan, just three years after independence 2011? Is our president aware of this? Or the barrel of the gun has become a daily meal for the future generation of the country? Is it not better to save the remaining ones at hand for mankind memory as the hen takes care of her eggs?
Honorable members of IGAAD, Dear participants and guests;
This paper is divided into two parts.
Part one concerns itself about questions regarding the alleged coup, the invisible hands, and advice to President of South Sudan in accordance to tradition. Why the Vice Chairman of the Political Bureau was advised to resign, and why President Kiir didn’t do that before Dr. Riek Could rebel?
Part two explores the problems and stumbles upon by states & local governments during Republican rule of a centralized system in South Sudan, between 2006 and 2014, and why there is need of federal government in South Sudan?
Part 1 – alleged coup and the invisible hands
When I carefully watch or critically contemplate every night with closed eyes before I fall asleep, this so called alleged coup has exposed itself and burst like a balloon to expose people’s feelings. The thousands and thousands or millions lives lost including SPLA forces celebrated every citizen’s right of South Sudan. If I say Dr. Riek or the 11 men did not make a coup, it would be as if I’m defending a Nuer. I do not know in security and military as well as political judgment of 1914 as an old Anyanya 1 of first movement of 1962. Should political Bureau leaders make a coup at the same time conducting a public rally in the national capital of a country under tight security? Can one cut a branch of a tree on which he is seated? Moreover, they had already been retired from active military service nine years ago.
(1) Historically whether you are in a government or not, nobody will deny that the mass killing did not start in the heart of the Government capital city Juba where thousands and thousands of Nuer Citizens were massacred.
(2 ) Nobody will refute the fact that the weapons used in the killing of thousands of citizens in the entire Republic of South Sudan is the price bullet of people’s state Oil being misused by central power that claims unity of people in Juba. One of the writers and I think a boy, “that federal government must wait for peace to be build in the South and the Oil revenue to be first invested and disbursed to the outside world”. The writer’s talk is exactly like one of the misers in 1976 found at a closed dark corner counting money which he thought should give a big round figure of 100 Pounds in those days. When he reached counting the last pounds and the aggregate became 99 Sudanese Pounds, he felt unsecure and suddenly looked up and saw a very poor hungry man stood behind him, and suddenly asked the poor person with trembling lips. “Pleasecan you give me one pound to complete the round figure”? Why again Oil money be saved in the central treasury more than the nine years’ 2005-2014 of central government? Isn’t he reading over the net about hundreds of millions and millions of USD being saved outside the country by individuals all from central government? What more shall again one USD serves the purpose through the same fearful central administration?
Who thinks that applying federal system is separating the central government from the states and local governments financially? It is instead a reduction of huge money hosted by a central government being exercised by a big building with few officials without land to invest and people to protect.
What kind of peace again is to be obtained by the central system to build schools rather than nine years as from when the CPA was signed until the districted coup in the centre of central government? Hospitals, schools, private concrete buildings and modern infrastructures that were made have been brought down to dust by the same central power in an alleged coup in the national capital city Juba where unity of the south was established and ruined.
The ignorant writer said money and stability be secured first thereafter people talk about federal system. This is not a scientific talk. What comes first? Is it the system or the accumulation of money as that being exposed by world net? I think the writer might not been well informed about Southern Sudanese financial mismanagement in world records of Oil Revenue for the past eight years as from 2006-2012. Does he know about the 4 Billion USD? The writer wanted to convince the world with “rubbish”.
It is the system that brings peace, and through peace man generates money, and not money that bring peace. In other words it’s the type of system that comes first to administer the money according to activities and targeted development and not the money to determine the system. If true the 15th December would have not taken place. Just compare that love amongst us before the CPA and when we achieved a central system. His talk is relatively with those who have saved million and million USD for themselves. The same applies when government of South Sudan was first established 2006 that people have to first get rich, then later a good system that generalized all people shall be introduced. Just take the records of houses already bought in East Africa (Nairobi and Kampala) during the past (8) years 2006-2014. The third financial authority in charge of the flow of Oil Revenue as well as the Western World Aids in kind and money when peace was signed 2005, Late Reath Thoan Wakoah was killed why? Who killed him? Of course nobody knows but the invisible hands. Now time has come for federal system to take over
(3) In history, a question shall stand to be asked under whose government and period has such mass killings and complete destructions covering the whole country occurred and at which time of United Nation Security Council Secretary General raised his concern?
(4) If South Sudan were under a federal system, would plans to kill thousands of one tribe in a day or two raise? Even Adolf Hitler did not do it to the Jews in one day 1939-1945 during the Second World War.
(5) Nobody will deny that the Political leadership of the SPLA/SPLM Party dressed in the garment of a murderer and leaving the real planners and executers invisible not to be traced is a good guidance for the government to be held responsible for. Shall they remain invisible during transitional period like in a jungle forest of man eater?
(6) Nobody would deny that, the killing of Nuer citizen and the looting of well furnished houses with their V8 or V6 cars by men in military uniform similar to those of SPLA were the main objectives of the invisible hands.
(7) No well informed and civilized figure whether a citizen of South Sudan or a foreigner who might have grasped the story, will deny that the shooting started by disarmament in the Presidential guards headquarters in the heart of the capital city Juba in the night of Sunday the 15th 2013, and not in Unity state, Upper Nile and Jungli state.
(8) There is no play or novel read and completed without finishing the first page. As we are addressing this very painful game of “hide and seek” (the disguised coup that killed thousands of Nuer), we will not draw closer to a clear picture and solution without IGAD, the International Community and the Security Council declaring the alleged coup whether it was true or not. If not, then who should be held responsible? Who are the actors of the killing of thousands of Nuer civilians? I mentioned “The Game of Hide and Seek”. We are seeking for a solution of a case whose actors and wrong doers are in hiding. How would the transitional cabinet appear or look like when the killers are not yet scrutinized? Is it so difficult or late for UNSC to help the situation?
(9) if a snake bit one of your children to death who was in a sleeping room with his brothers at night, will the rest of the children have the courage return into the room when the snake still there? Whether the world declares it is a coup or not, the factual question is why is the so called government of national unity in a new born child killing its people still exists? Hence, foreigners who are unaware of the origin are badly in need of such facts in order to systematically follow the footsteps of this uncivilized alleged coup and the causes of mass killing of our innocent people. This in future will serve as reference to world governments which honestly contribute financially with Millions of USD and humanitarian Aid for us to get a country that has now turned into mass killing and sending away world diplomats.
Dinka tribe is involved in this mass killing when in fact it is an act of invisible hands of Dinka soldiers in Juba authorized to act with malice to kill innocent Nuer citizens. Dinka tribe in origin like Nuer tribe is a spiritual norm not supposed to amount to such immoral crimes against humanity or against man of the same flesh. Forcing a Nuer man through the muzzle of a gun to eat his brother flesh or to drink the blood of his own tribe had never being witnessed during creation of Nuer and Dinka, and so the whole world.
At this moment, when president Kiir is the leader of Dinka tribe whom I think has the belief of Dinka traditional culture, and for the respect of Dinka tribe and future generation, Kiir Mayardit should tell the truth behind the disguised coup and who are the planners and executers of the mass killing. Being an elected president and as expected from a president of a country, he should expose such facts to his people when they arise to avoid speculation. If he is constrained by power or status, I’m sure as a tribe man descended from the same norm, another gentleman or gentlemen from Dinka tribe will come up to confess publicly to honor the tribe. If it were a Nuer who did it in the heart of his government, would it take him time to confess? That is why some of our brothers from Dinka tribe misused such trust as a weapon against Nuer. In Nuer culture, it is either “Yes or No” nothing in the middle. It is pure and not mixed, which is a sign of truth and power.
(10) Shiluk and Nuer had never one day waged tribal fights in history of Upper Nile Province since Mahdia and British rule 1886-1956. So is from independence of Sudan to the Regional Government of South Sudan 1972-1983 during the Regional Government of South Sudan. Therefore, had there been no tribal killings among the SPLA forces basing on tribal colors, the fight in Malakal would have not taken place. In 1886 during Mahdia rule, 120 men from Nuer tribe made a long journey from Central Nuer Pangak to Kodok, the headquarters of Shiluk Kingdom. Their mission was to rescue and help the Shiluk kingdom from unnecessary forced tax collections by Prince Zaki Thamal to finance the Central treasury of Mahdia rule in Gazira Aba.
(11) The two neighboring tribes of the Eastern upper Nile; Dinka Ngok of Baliet, formerly Abwong District and the Jikany Nuer of Nasir, formerly Eastern Nuer District, never fought themselves in the history of Upper Nile during the Anglo-Egyptian rule 1898-1956 and from 1956-1972 when Addis Ababa Accord was signed. Likewise, was under the government of President Abel Alier Kuai between 1972 and 1980. Upon completion of the establishment of Leer Rural Council in 1977, I was transferred to Eastern Nuer District Nasir as Acting A/Commissioner. During my administrative trek, I had a stopover at Lony of Cieng Duong of Ulang Court Centre towards the boarder limits between Nasir and Baliet and asked an old man from Nuer that I have now spent two years without recording any tribal monthly report between you and Dinka Baliet the neighboring tribe from the West. His answer was: “ When Ngundeng was passing through Lony and Gelashel of Dinka Ngok he found the two tribes fighting each other and ordered the Jikany Nuer not to fight Dinka Ngok and not such fight be repeated” Since no fight has been witnessed. If there were a true fight between Nuer and Dinka recently, from where was it generated? Nobody shall therefore deny that the centralized power had a hand in the Juba alleged disguised coup and might have instigated by tribal challenges or manners.
A wise man would not at all deny that, the fight in Malakal is the extension of the fight generated in Juba and not a fight that has been established in Upper Nile between Nuer and Shiluk or between Nuer and Dinka Ngok. Juba itself never witnessed such cruel manners in the previous governments nor in its traditional life. At the end of 2012 and exactly at the beginning of 2013, Dr. Riek Mchar Teny, in his capacity as Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan, honestly and indisputably initiated a peace dialogue with the governor of Jungli state Major General Kuol Manyang Juuc in order to indoctrinate peace between Nuer and Dinka of Jungli state. Why was he ordered by the Palace to stop peaceful initiative and to report to Juba in April 2013?
Despite presidential order DR. Riek in Juba and particularly in NEW SUDAN HOTEL, he still proceeded with peace dialogue and held a peaceful conference which was attended by all the intellectuals of all the tribes in the country. Prof. Abenego Akok Kashuol now Chairman of National Elections Commission a Dinka in tribe from Lake State was the patron. Unfortunately, the Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan and Vice Chairman of SPLM Political Bureau was again and finally surprised by a Presidential Decree on the 12th of April 2013 ceasing such powers of peace building by Machar. Why was the president against peace reconciliation between Nuer and Dinka, particularly in Bor and the country at large? Is it because 1991 has not been paid back, by the seven years plan? Should it be at the expense of all people with their wealth and rights? And again at the expense of world community to help and take care of three million displaced people? What of the one million displaced children now suffering and dying in United Nation Camps? It is better for the government to expose the invisible hands now, and as they are people of cows, they will one day boastingly expose the secret themselves that they did it because of that. By nature and the blood of thousands and thousands of Nuer SPLA martyred during the 21 years of movement the biggest figure known to SPLA/SPLM Command in Chief Late Dr. John Garang de Mabior, will not at all allow such immoral practice to pass without being exposed and questioned.
This lawful session, resolving bloody epidemic crisis is a reflection to the souls of thousands and thousands of lives of citizens killed innocently by the alleged coup. Hopefully this historical gathering looking for solution of an intended planned disguised coup and with the help of International Organization especially the United States of America, the souls of thousands of Nuer lives in Juba national capital should not be bypassed without identification of the invisible hands and be brought to justice. In an interview given in A l jazeera news television to one of Nuer displaced citizen in one of UNIMISS CAMP, his few words were “If we could be shown those who killed us we would ask them why do you kill us?” This statement was not translated because the official translator was from other tribe. See how painful the answer is? An answer from an innocent mouth!
Political Movement and Traditional Norms and Culture:-
(12) First of all, SPLM is an instrument established in the bush by all Southern Sudanese rebellions in respect to their ethnic groups of culture. It was not established inside a government system of a country in accordance to Parties Act, but it is a party for all people in the country. It is a symbol unanimously created to unite all the tribes of Southern Sudanese to fight a holy war of freedom successfully, respect and protect their norms and culture. Before the SPLM, in Jan 1962 when General Aboud dissolved Sudan parliament when rebellion emerged, Southern Politicians had to form one party to unite them and they called it SACDNU (Sudan African Closed District National Union). Some people may not be aware that those who wished Dr. Riek to split and form a new party wished him to disappear in the midst of political differences on one hand, and the party itself to be in crisis as a source of insecurity in the country. And at the end there shall be no SPLM.
Riek never resigned as they hoped, and as the consequence, the invisible hands succeeded to convince President Kiir to purge the whole cabinet ministers together with his Vice in July 2013 because the cabinet backed his former Vice President Dr. Riek Machar. I first met Dr. Riek in July after three months when he was removed from Vice President in July 2013. I met him at the National Assembly steps getting out from his car. He was coming to the Parliament to attend normal sessions. I was by then on a private visit to the Parliament looking for a responsible person who could be a relative to the President to hand him my open letter of 25th September 2013, when I suddenly met Editor In Chief of the Citizen News Paper, Comrade Nhial Bol and related to him my mission.
To my own knowledge, the big cabinet ministers did not back Machar to remove president Kiir at that stage, but backing him for party discussion as stipulated by SPLM objectives since March 2013. There is no party without development, unless there is no progress on human resources and that is why the whole cabinet was backing him. Local government changes every period of time as development takes place. Even with us in our Nuer traditional culture, a generation is marked after every ten years and is given a title to differentiate it from generation in hierarchy. The truth is when Dr. Riek got removed from being Vice President by President Kiir, he remained in his position as Vice Chairman of SPLM Party, unpredictably ignorant about a planned disguised coup. Being an SPLM recognized member in the Parliament, he reported himself to the National Assembly until the time when his house was stormed by the alleged coup, the 15th of December 2013. It was until March 2014 when Machar declared himself officially as the rebel leader of SPLA. To make facts right, President Kiir never dismissed Dr. Riek from the Political Bureau Office or from the party but waited for the “right time” to come – the alleged coup. The military tanks that destroyed the residence the Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan turning it into ashes serves as prove of the plan. New fund from state Oil Revenue shall be ordered to build a new edifice without shame.
(13) Many do not know the secret behind the SPLM traditional secret, even to some SPLM leaders who contributed much or participated during struggle. They never agreed all in one day nor had they one destination of departure. It was an individual courage based on one’s aspiration to look for power and freedom to have a country. The blood of our martyrs’ first political leaders, Gai Tur and Kuot Atem, and many others, were the opening ceremony in the bush that established SPLM/SPLA to open its first Chapter for the struggle to succeed faithfully. With such secret power in tradition, why is it so hard to be recalled by our political and security powers when they come to power? Is there anybody near the president ever asked himself about the sudden death of the founder who opened the first page of SPLM/SPLA? He died after handing over the fruits of struggle (CPA) to people and took an Air-jet plane back to the bush on the 30th of June 2005 to close the Chapter, preventing him to attend the fruits of independence.
God showed him to me in a dream that very night getting out from a military Helicopter plane landing in a tall bushy yellow grass. He was dressed in a yellow kaki bush shirt. He was bending down and running towards forest, and I shouted with an exclamation while in the dream “(Where are his pistols)”. The lower back bush shirt immediately rolled up to his back showing no pistols and I suddenly got up with a very terrible Diarrhea and fever at mid-night. Do the planners of mass killing, the invisible hands know this meaning? Dr. Garang, the founder of SPLA/SPLM did not survive to witness the fruits of independence and how the South with different diversities could be ruled.
God did not want him to have more sins than what he might have done when opening the first Chapter. The big question now is the last Chapter which was closed by the founder of the book has now been re-opened by invisible red hands by not only killing thousands and thousands of Nuer citizens in Juba national capital city but also SPLA/SPLM now still fighting themselves anywhere in the green. Now the question at hand is who is going to put the page back as it was closed by the founder? Who opened it? Do they know how it was closed since there is no spiritual book left opened?
(14) Who owns SPLM? And who will tackle or be held liable for the loss of lives and properties lost in the name of SPLM during the 21 years of struggle (1983 – 9thJan.2005)? Does it belong to one person or to a tribe? Does it belong to president Kiir or to Dr. Riek Machar or to a president of a Buma, the village congress Chairman? Late Dr. John Garang de Mabior confessed it before he died, that the SPLM does not belong to him or to H.E Salva Kiir, neither to Dr. Riek Machar Teny. It became a song during national celebrations when Dr. Garang was alive. This Dr. John Garang’s song was stopped somewhere, and we do not know why?
(15) Is it genuine or logical for a country born of tribes to share its leaders in one party leadership, or each tribe owns a party to preach? My open letter to the president advising him and all members of the political Bureau on 25th Sep.2013 in the Citizen News Paper cautioning the government under the title “(We are part of nature to forgive and reconcile”). It reads as follows:
“Of course there is no leader who wishes his country to be in chaos, but if not vigilant, whistling wind coming from hot different land, always tries to envy and destroys a blessed nation in a competition. In country where there are traditional tribes like South Sudan, it is simple to make the two choices possible. Either to make the country live in crisis; let hatred be caused between tribes. Or to make everlasting peace among all the tribes for generations after generation, then build a pyramid of love between all tribes in the country and be remembered for thousands of years” Do you think this message didn’t reach Kiir the President? And if it reached him, do you think that the Invisible hands would allow him to act according to the advice?
(16). If we can recall the riot in Malakal town during the third anniversary of the CPA in Malakal town 2009 when President Kiir was excited by a riot at Malakal Air Port, clashes between Dinka and Shiluk, to whom did the administration of Malakal town belong – the Shiluk or the Dinka? This question must be well understood by all people of Great Upper Nile, Unity state, Jungli and present Upper Nile. Why the administration of Malakal town being claimed now had never been claimed by any tribe during Anglo-Egyptian rule of 1898 until 2005, except during transitional government of South Sudan 2006 of President Salva Kiir? Dinka Baliet students of good conduct like Chol Abiel, Mayien Gai, Bol Malou and several others were with us in Bentiu Intermediate School at Malakal, we had never heard such disunity policy of divide and rule. The invisible hands are the planners for a blind dream of ownership that separate the unity of people. But our government since the signing of the CPA depended on the invisible hands. Question of administrative boundaries within local councils had not yet been eradicated after so many re-divisions had taken place in the country.
It is one of the problems that made 2009 Transitional Local Government Act difficult to implement. When central power was established, its main objective was supposed to work with professionals already in the country who could help in the identification of administrative development in the country. Instead, the most qualified experienced senior local government officers were made redundant and were made to vanish. Executive Director of local government late Philip Nyiding Ojang holder of post graduate Diploma in Public Administration, Regional and Local Government was intentionally made redundant until he died with those fruits obtained from Birmingham 1983. The same applies to Chief Executive Officer Acuil Acuil and many more, were made to stay at their homes leaving their profession to be enjoyed by newly created ones without experience or taken to various courses in the field of local government.
(17) As far as democracy is concerned according to one of the opposition leaders, “Dr. Riek was advised to form his own party”.
Why form his own party? Why was SPLM Political Bureau established? Was it established to dismiss political figures when they raise pertinent issues, or to discuss such raised issues? How did they come to that level to form a political Bureau? Does it look healthy for the Chairman a lone to dismiss without getting an acceptance of 2/3 votes from the Political Bureau membership? In reverse, can the 2/3 of political bureau members backing Dr. Riek decide the fate of the Chairman without compromise? I think this was not done for fear of the party to get into disarray as it is now. What keeps the country united? Is it the president or the membership of the Political Bureau? If Political Bureau members are progressively dismissed whenever the Chairman disagrees with a member, shall there be membership afterwards? In reality what keeps the country firmly united today is not the SPLA killing its citizens, but the SPLM harboring other parties.
(18) it’s imperative to emphasize that the different systems of executive, legal and constitutional leadership, should not view the 15th of December 2013 disguised coup in Juba national capital incidence like the normal coups which sometimes occurred in Africa or in LDCs. If you refer to the Bible in Genesis, the Earth is divided to people in accordance to their traditional culture. People of the sea have their own color and wisdom and they have called themselves European whether west or east. The Far East God has also given them their norms different from European, and the same to Middle East. For us in Africa, God has also given us traditional culture to make us different others. But God’s secret is that we do not know why people of oceans the white man or people of seas mentioned in the Bible, are advanced than we the black African yet God created us in the same image? The answer will also be answered by a question. Why God has given us both the Blue and Green, when people of seas God have given them only the Blue? We are the luckiest because we have the green soil and waters. But God also compensated them to fights the high salty waters with Wisdom. God gave them wisdom how to cross ocean so that they can reach us and see the green as they are helping us now. God has offered them that wisdom to fight crisis as they actually do with honesty.
Blue + Green= Blue + wisdom.
Therefore, Green (Africa) =wisdom (Europe)
My advice to my brother the President is that the disguised coup should not be treated as a normal coup like in other countries that always takes place and finished by the same military hands. It is my humble advice to everyone who descended traditionally from this land of Green Soil, South Sudan that what happened in Juba in the night of SUNDAY the 15th December 2013 while children of God were preparing for CHRISTMAS DAY, should not be denied. If denied, SUNDAY is betrayed. Which Christian can make a coup on Sunday night? Traditionally empowered by creation, the power that made them to leave their homes and led them to the bush and has attained a country with two million lives left in that bush, and with children of God and old men drawn in the RIVER NILE for sacrifice, is still the GUARDIAN.
Their blood shall not just be randomly poured in vain into the green, the world is witnessing. This shall never be accepted by God Himself who created our culture and norms for us to live in peace and prosperity. Let us act differently from the other world in treating such cases for future reference. The young generation is watching us scornfully like a listening Angel and the world is puzzled, gazing apprehensively with what wisdom shall Kiir exhibit to the world being the President of a new nation? Will he decide to keep mum or with war to balance the figure of two million left in the bush so that the tantamount to zero? Let the government be courageous to tell the truth. The courage is not to kill in darkness and in cold blood, but the power of a leader is to have facts for future generation to follow. Let the red invisibles claws emerge. White people do not develop because of wisdom, but because do not conceal facts and with facts God cherish their ways. Should we continue to conceal facts about the 15th December 2014 for the country to live in crisis? God shall curse those who orchestrate the immoral act and still our country shall live under mistrusted rules throughout centuries. However, with the president’s proclamation of facts and emergence of the red invisible hands, an honest, trustworthy and prosperous country shall be cherished.
God created us first with our traditional culture unless we deny our ancestors who brought us to where we are with these norms that we are denying. It is God himself who has sent to us our savior Jesus Christ. No nation in this world that leaves its traditional culture, but differs from tribe to tribe in humanity. Christ said to his people the Jews “I’m not coming to change your norms but to correct them. Who wants to divorce his wife must give her a certificate” See the Jews have they abandoned the small round black flat cap different from the white one the Priest put on his head? Despite that, they are pure Christians. In Christ name, from the beginning of the transitional period 2006, government of South Sudan turned from African norms to European luxury life as I’m sure the USD and the huge help from European countries after the Peace Accord was endorsed, were misused as power was too centralized.
All states marriages are conducted in the European styles in the central capital Juba where Oil Revenue centralized, instead of their respective localities to benefit from the fruits of hundred of white V8 cars. How can we develop if social competitions are also centralized? Central Equatoria state community has ever right to claim federal government. Please refer to my article in 2011 in citizen News paper. It reads: “The death roots of our late Garang were ignored to be traditionally traced to give us the facts why he did not survive to witness the new born nation, when the whole mass of political parties in the South and the north became fully engaged in wealth and power sharing. The Oil and USD became the most important elements to disturbing the mind of politics to power. This is because if the Oil Revenue is not directly and totally centralized and distributed by central power just from the “well to ——”, no massacre would have been witnessed. Traditional and local scientific strategies to keep the south in peace and not in pieces, was a distance between the sky and earth”.
WHY FEDERAL SYSTEM IN SOUTH SUDAN NOW?
The fifteenth of December 2013 is a book by itself sufficient to offer guidelines why there is a need for a federal system. Below serves as fundamental objectives of federal government.
(1) If the country had a FEDERAL system, the alleged coup would have not been planned and taken place.
(2) If the country had a FEDERAL system thousands and thousands of Nuer would have not been killed in Juba town. They should have been engaged in their respective states, and not attracted to the center in vain by a centralized system that distributes power and resources.
(3) The bullet that was fired by the power to kill innocent citizens would have not being misused
(4) The only Nuer economist late Reath Thoan Wakuah in the ministry of finance & economic planning in charge of Oil Revenue and expenditure was killed by the first bullet of the alleged coup to close the accounts, and the Account Book to be written (PA), Put Away.
(5) Question of suspected four Billion USD from the Oil Revenue which is now the talk in the net floating abroad would have not been the cause to wash out Nuer educated class.
(6) My paternal uncle’s son late eng. Jiec Maloah, a young graduate from faculty of pilot engineering in Russia would not have been killed with late Kerbino Mayak, SPLM Secretary of Guit County in Unity state Bentiu, a graduate of Business Administration and several educated others killed by the Oil value of their ancestors in Juba capital of central government by the invisible hands. I’m astonished how would the transitional government be formed when killers have not yet been scrutinized and brought to book?
(7) Had there been federal system in the country the extended fight in Upper Nile state, Jungli and Unity state would have not taken place and thousands of lives either SPLA or civilians lost.
(8) The United Nation camps which are now congested with more than one million displaced people is a consequence of the conflict of a centralized power extended to the states. You know how a balloon bursts when congested with extra air; it gives a noise of surprise. And the Carbon dioxide disappears like the invisible hands of the alleged coup.
(9) Just have a sympathy look at the distance of between one million displaced citizens and the central government. It is only the UNIMISS and the world community that sympathize with the condition of country displacement. Up to this moment as I write these few lines the government has not dispatched any single USD from states Oil Revenue as financial Aid to any one of UNIMISS camp. Can’t the invisible hands advice the president?
Chapter One (A)
Dr. Garang did not survive to witness the fruits of independence and how the south with different diversities could be ruled. May be God did not want him to commit more sins than what he might have done when opening the first Chapter. God pardoned him and did not want him after he has achieved a country not to add more wrongful weight on his right shoulder. Nobody balances the book in nature between the first and the last chapter. Who knows which system Dr. John Garang was going to apply if he were to be alive? I’m sure he would not at all violate the demand of southern political first leaders who started our political history in the Sudan by Juba Round Table conference1947 asking for federal government in the south.
Remember Dr. John Garang theory about development that he always used to emphasize in his statements that development must be taken to rural areas. What policy was Dr. Garang driving at as regards to taking development to rural areas? Did he mean the country to be ruled by a centralized government in Juba as we are in troubles today? Or he meant South Sudan to be ruled by a federal system so that capacity of money can be transferred back by the central government to state and local governments to implement immediate and targeted developments according to people wishes and not those of the minister in Juba who has no people to think of and land to invest. This is the policy to empower different types of service, whether administrative, legal, social, health or political the source of political composition and conflict. In simple calculation, do you know the value of four Billion USD now being circulated through world media and net? It is the amount supposed trickle down to states and local governments to exercise fully their duties and services to people for development. If I were among the list which does not exceed twenty, I would thank God that this Federal Government being claimed now, would have no genuine cause, had there been no huge figures and many others of state Oil Revenue retained as balance in the central distributions. In January 1963 General Ibrahim Abuod military president of Sudan, dissolved the parliament when rebellion emerged in the south. Therefore, Southern parliamentarians were forced to come down to south in their respective parties. For example SANU, SOUTHERN FRONT, LIBERAL Party——–.When they reached the south they thought of something to unite them to face the southern challenge. They had to form a party to unite them and named of SACDNU. This SACDNU was the beginning of the unity in the history of southern political system to-date.
The following political classified groups of Southern Sudanese Political leaders, witnessed and passed different types of Sudan government systems starting from Anglo-Egyptian rule 1898, then the Regional Government of South Sudan 1972- 1983. They showed love and good wishes to their people. They all appreciated federal government to be introduced in the South Sudan 1947 to make the unity attractive. They are:-
(1) Late Hon. Lugi Aduok—- Member of Sudan Supreme Council ( 1953-1957)
(2) Late Hon. Both Diu— Member of Sudan Parliament 1953 and minister of Animal Resources
(3) Late Hon. Filament Majok—Meber of Sudan Parliament
(4) Late Hon. Jashua Malual Mut—former member of Sudan Parliament 1957- 1964
(5) Late Hon. Clement Omboro—Minister of Interior—member of Parliament and minister of Interior 1964
(6) Late Hon. Andrew Wiew—Former Assistant District Commissioner 1954—former member of Sudan
(7) Late Hon. Francis Gey Majok pieny- Former member of Sudan Parliament 1957
(8) Late Hon. Michael Chan de Bilkuey—former member of Sudan Parliament 1953.
(9) Late Kun Nyak-former member of Sudan Parliament 1953
And many others.
In 1963, President Abuod closed down the Sudan Parliament and the following Southern Sudanese Parliamentarians formed a unitary body in the South and they called it SACDNU (SUDAN AFRICAN CLOSED DISTRCT NATIONAL UNION). They formed a committee sponsoring the petition to United Nation Assembly. The Committee composed of the following:-
(1) Late Hon. J.H Odhuho –President of SACDNU( Sudan African Closed Districts National Union 1963 ), former member of Sudan Parliament
(2)Late Hon. William Deng Nhial—-Secretary General of SACDNU, former Assistant District Commissioner in the Sudan (Assassinated by government troops in an ambush between Wau and Rumbek, August 1968 during the first movement of Anya-Nya(1)
(3) Late Hon. Marko Rume —Vice President of SACDNU, former member of Sudan Parliament
(4) Late Hon. Saturnino Lohure—member of SACDNU, former member of Sudan Parliament & president of Liberal Party in the Sudan
(5) Late Hon. Valerino Orrege. Treasurer of SACDNU
(6) Late Hon. Aggrey Jaden—Deputy Secretary General of SACDNU, former Local Government officer In the Sudan
(7) Late Hon. Ferdinal Adiang—former member of Sudan Parliament & minister of mineral Resources in the Sudan 1956. Member of SACDNU
(8) Late Hon. James Wek Athian—Member of SACDNU–former member of Sudan Parliament
(9) Late Hon. Pancrasio Ochang—-member of SACDNU—former member of Sudan Parliament
(10) Late Hon. Philip Pedak Liedh —–member of SACDNU—former member of Sudan Parliament
(11) Late Hon. Basia Renzi —Member of SACDNU. X Paramount Chief in the Sudan
(12) Late Hon. Nathaniel Oyet—member of SACDNU—–former member of Sudan Parliament
(13) Late Hon. Akuot Atem de Mayen—member of SACDNU—former Administrator in the Sudan
(14) Late Hon. Alexis Mbali Yango—member of SACDNU
Below is their historical letter addressed to United Nation on 29th April 1963 asking for federal system in South Sudan.
New York 30 N.Y
29TH April 1963
His Excellency Mr. Adllai E. Stephenson
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of
The United States to United Nations
I beg on behalf of the people of the South Sudan to present you this advanced copy of a petition which my people hope to present to United Nations this year. The petition is still Confidential and we are presenting it to you because we people of the Southern Sudan have confidence in the government of and the people of the United States of America We believe that the United States government is working for the freedom and peace of all people of the world.
I would be most grateful to know that the United States government can do for the people of the Southern Sudan when you would have had time to consider the petition, your reply will be kept confidentia
a) Policy of SACDNU
b) Reason for the Petition
c) Conference 1947
A- Policy of SACDNU.
Our policy is independence for the Southern Sudan, Southern Sudan for Southern Sudanese within the framework of Black African unity.
B- Reason for the petition.
To ask the United Nation to investigate political crisis in the South, and what causes such crisis
C- Juba Conference 1947
In 1947, Southern politicians on behalf of the people of South Sudan asked for a federal government in the South. We think time has now come for such an active democratic system to be introduced if we achieve a country.
We wish to hear from you soon
President of SACDNU (Sudan African Closed District National Union)
Addis Ababa Accord 1972 and the formation of High Executive Council followed by the establishment of Regional government 1981 in South Sudan during the implementation of Sudan Local Government Act 1981 of Areas Councils.
(1) Hon. Justice Abel Alier Kuai—Preisdent of the High Executive Council in South Sudan 1972-1980
(2) Late Hon. Samuel Arou Bol—Retired police officer — former Vice President of High Executive Council, and minister of Administration, Police & Prison.
(3) Retired General Joseph Lago—Leader of Anya-Nya(1,)- General in Sudan Arms Force in Khartoum 1972-1980–President of High Executive Council 1980-1982
(4) Late Hon. Hillary Paul Lugali- former leader of first movement and former member of Sudan Parliament.
(5) Late Hon. Rial Jal—former member of Parliament
(6) Late Hon. Peter Gatkuoth Gual—minister of finance of High Executive Council 1972-1980
(7) Late Hon. Isaiah Kulang—former member in parliament—former minister of Wild Life and Tourism of High Executive Council 1972-1980
(8) Late Hon. Thomas Kume Kan— former member of South Sudan Parliament, former Regional Minister of Wild Life and Tourism 1981-1983
(9) Late Hon. Benedict Kuerthuk — Director of Sports in Upper Nile Province
(10) Late Hon. Mading de Garang of Grass Curtain News Paper during Anya-Nya (1) Movement-former Minister of Information & Culture of High Executive Council 1972- 1975
(11) late Justice Joseph Banak Riek Dong, one of former leaders of Anya-Nya One- Former Director General of High Executive Council 1972-1981
(12) Late Hon. Othuan Dak—former Commissioner of Upper Province 1977—1980/ former Minister of Education & Culture of High Executive Council 1981
(13) Late Hon. Philip Obang (known in Nuer societas as Rialmaiylang)—former Commissioner of Upper Nile1979-1982.
(14)Hon. Daniel Kuat Mathew—former member of Parliament- former minister of High Executive Council for Youth and Sports 1978-1980
(15)Late Hon Moses Chuol Juai, Executive Director of local government in Western Sudan 1972—former Commissioner of Upper Province 1972-1974. Then former minister of Administration, Police & Prison of High Executive Council 1974-1979
(16) Late Hon. Cic Lam—former Member of Parliament
(17) Late Hon. Gatwic Kan- minister of High Executive Council of Rural Development Corporation 1972-1978
(18) Late Hon. Mathew Obor Ayang–former Regional minister, government of South Sudan, former Prof. University of Khartoum
(19) Late Hon. Eng. Mathew Othow-former Regional minister of housing and public utilities
(20) Late Hon. Bol Kalmal—former Regional minister—former governor of upper Nile1993
(21) Late Hon. Reat Chuol- former leader of first movement-1962-1972-former Governor of Upper Nile Province 1963-1974
(22) Late Hon. Gama Hassen—Minister of Agriculture of High Executive Council 1972-1978
(23) Late Hon. Samuel Gai Tut— Chairman of Cease fire Commission for Upper Nile Province 1972- District Commissioner of Yerol 1974-1978-member of Parliament and minister of Wild Life & Tourism 1978-1982 of High Executive Council
(24) Late Hon. Francais Gey Majok—former member of Parliament 1974-1978.
(25) Late Hon. James Tumbora-President of the High Executive Council 1980-1982
(26) Late Hon. Tito Tipo—former Executive Director of Local Government—former Regional minister of Administration, Police & Prison 1980-1983
(27) Late Hon. Jud Ajubong—former Executive Director of Upper Nile Province 1972-1976
(28) Late Hon. Samuel Ater Dak—former Regional Director General of Administration, Police & Prison 1972-1976—-former Executive Director of Upper Nile Province 1976—1978
(29) Late Hon. Caesar Arkangelo Suliman –former executive Director of Upper Nile Province 1978-1979
(30) Hon. David Koak Guok—President of Nile valley in Anya-Nya(1)-former Executive Director of Upper Nile Province 1979-1982
(31) Late Hon. Richard K. Mula—former Executive Director of Upper Nile Province- Was D/Executive Director of Upper Nile Province 1976-1980—-Executive Director 1980–1982
(32) Late Hon. Andrew Rivi, Chief Executive Officer of Northern Area Council, Renk 1978-1981)
Chapter two (B)
Problems faced by states and local governments during the transitional government, between 2006 and 2010 and from 2010 up to date under the Republican system of President Salva Kiir Mayardit.
(1) In the field of education:-
It was agreed in the CPA agreement that the national language to be used in the South is English. Due to war 90% of Southern Sudanese Students were found by the agreement under Arabic Curriculum. They were getting their education from northern Sudan during the 21 years of war. To become a southern Sudanese student under the new English system which the government in the south had applied, the following difficulties were faced.
 States and local governments failed to establish a proper English system due to the following financial and administrative challenges:-
(a) People had just come from war and were bare handed with nothing to possess. The entire infrastructure found in schools, health centers were completely destroyed. The only revenue which is Oil supposed to benefit where it is found, is being centralized without respect to total expenditure of the state producing Oil. Funds for building modern schools and provision of social services are inadequate.
(b) Budget of states and local governments are centralized. Therefore, a great number of about 90% from Arabic pattern failed to get English schools in their respective states due to lack of funds. This forced their parents to return to foreign countries in search for English schools for their children. This again has caused instability and migration back to foreign countries as well as having no confidence in both the state and central government. House wives have deserted their homes to take care of their small children in primary schools in East Africa for the sake of their kids’ future to get educated. This has changed family and social lives in various states. People are still unsettled. No central power reflects on when such unknown shameful pilgrimage searching for English pattern shall ever end. Is it because their children are well accommodated in their own houses getting English education? . Unless a federal system is introduced and the states and local government builds such attractive schools with the same qualified teachers like those from East Africa and world, only God knows whatever social changes shall emerge in near future in the family’s lives.
(c) It is a known fact to deny even to NGOS that 90 per central ministers and senior government servants get their children education from East Africa. Why? Have we not attained a country? Don’t we have Oil and Minerals? But some states became more advanced in infrastructure than the oil states producing Oil revenue!
(a) Security between states was the major issue hampering development. The deployment of police forces and administration are all centralized. Cases amounting to death (culpable homicide) are delayed either because they are not presented to court or the court sits over them. As such, tribal fights generate when law is not executed and not overtly seen.
(b) Political disunity caused by Juba central government. Without exaggeration, just immediately during the transitional government, Juba capital city is the centre for ten Southern states governments’ affairs. The National Assembly parliamentarians become the state’s governors raising issues and complaints directly to the palace when such cases are supposed to be referred either to the governor himself or to state Assembly to follow up. Here the situation of overlaps of power between the centre and the state is unnecessarily caused, and has made the government machinery in the states to come to stand still on people’s account. Hence the state Assembly becomes one sided of what the central power says.
(c) Bomas’ and Payams’ tribal Chiefs of the lower government level have rooms in the Presidential Palace having constitutional and administrative privileges. They are provided with luxuries cars or facilities when their Chief Executive Officers of Counties and not Executive Officers, are doing the task on foot. Leave alone the rest of local government officers who look awfully puzzled of a centralized order. This of course has caused a situation of insubordination in the administrative chain of command and respect of law and where order is killed. This situation contributes to tribal fights as local government officers become redundant. (See how centralization of wealth, prevents technical advisors to give advice to the sovereignty).
(a) Banking. All bank employments are centralized. Not only centralized, but submissions are first made personally confidential before the public notice is posted in the News papers. Besides, some states have no access such News papers due to flight or lack of transport. Some states’ citizens could not make it because of too high central backing as ethnic remarks are of great influence. Where on earth isn’t central Bank in state governments? Bank is just a building keeping people’s wealth whether private or public to be invested in return to development. Central Branches are important so that states governments become supervisors of such Branches to know the flow of money within their jurisdiction and to evaluate resources with annual expenditure. Hence they targeted development.
(b) When Central branches are established at state level it easier to facilitate for the opening of Forex bureau branches than seeking approval from central government that takes a longtime or may probably fail to succeed.
(c) Oil Companies are supposed to be distributed to Oil producing states to balance employment as well as citizenship stability and their contribution to state problems in regards to development.
(d) The states and local governments budgets are centralized and being vetted by technical personnel in the ministry of finance who at times remain with a surplus at central level at the expense of inadequate facilitation at the states and local governments.
(e) It causes a lot of state citizens deserting their localities migrating to central government Juba in search of employment. Such employment which is made by an individual at the centre without any background has serious effects on the people of the states. How would there be stability when recruitment centralized?
(f) Governors from the Oil producing states are marginalized by the central government to know (in oil fields) the type of companies coming to invest in oil production and the kind of contract in value. Employment whether classified or unclassified staff is supposed to be done by the state government.
(g) States and local government producing oil have to direct their Financial Capital Control Board to make the exact obliged Annual expenditure (ch,i, ii and iii of development) against their oil receipts, to reflect their actual claims from central government including reserve funds.
Chapter Three (C)
Objectives that of Federal Government in South Sudan seek to achieve.
Before judgment whether time has come or not, the following objectives of local government answer the above question. Then afterwards we shall focus on problems that are faced by states governments and why they demand federal system?
In practice, the objectives of local government are always diverse, varying from a country to country and from period of time to period of time within a country. Now time has come for South Sudan after eight years of central system. The following objectives are well introduced:-
Local government is established for reasons of administrative efficiency and effective service provision.
(a) Functional de concentration of central departments tends to create a vacuum at the local level, especially if functional areas do not coincide, and departmental horizontal coordination is weak at the lower levels. Hence the need for an organization with a well defined local jurisdiction and its own internal coordination is essential. Prefectural de concentration does not permit such a vacuum though involving generalist versus specialist tensions and involving central government needlessly in local political issues. Some devolution accordingly can contribute to efficient management.
(b) Efficiency demands the effective solutions are given to real problems, and these are only likely to be achieved if the communication with governed is frank and clearly expressed. Informed central responses intermediate institution to be the eye and ear of the locality
(c) The efficient execution of services is best secured by a well established local institution.
(2) National Unity:-
Local government has been used to contribute to national unity in three main respects which accounts for its recurring attractiveness to third world governments.
(a) By vesting divertive elements with status. Areas of historic importance can be centers of fragmentation if not recognized.
(b) By breaking down areas of destructive influence.
(c) Merging areas of conflicts.
“Unity” of massacre as reflected in Juba national capital city is a unity of wild. It can’t bond all members in world community even though we all become Oil Receipts. There shouldn’t be central power plans to kill its people right before the eye of United Nation Security Council and World Community. This is purely wild and it has to be tamed!
To have strong and real unity among ourselves amidst diversities, let states and local government operate through federal system. Nearby states shall soon have common interest not to merge in order to have direct economic interest. I’m deeply concerned about rapid Mechanized governmental Agricultural schemes shared by states. It is just like the local council building modern market centre with all facilities then later owned by the traders. think of Lake state, formerly Yerol District and Unity states, formerly Western Nuer District, both start such a viable project, should the tribal fights between the two neighboring tribes continue? Each shall be engaged in its scheme that produces 1,000 bags of sorghum in six month time than keeping 1000 of cows that it does not make use. Suspicion between them would reduce. If security prevails between tribes than social and political economic changes emerges owing to common interests between the states. Here Yerol and Bentiu can recall the 1922-1927 when they were one district under District Commissioner, Captain Ferguson. The rich states always attract the poor one and vice versa.
Democracy is a quality boasted by most modern governments whether overtly socialist or capitalist. Local government has been attributed with great democratic value based on:-
a) Public responsibility:-
Local government makes the public at large responsible for their local government and misgovernment.
b) Public education:-
Participation in decision making and policy choices makes the ordinary citizen aware of the responsibilities and implication of government.
c) Public accountability:-
This of course applies to elected member who has to justify his leadership to the electorate who are in a position to see his utility, and to the local government officer who, in Dr. Marchal words“has his master on his doorstep”
(4) Public articulation:-
Local government gives expression to local wants and demand and in some countries its main democratic purpose as many of French communes.
Local government is free to take decisions of its concern, as this is an extension of democracy and capacity to implement democratic choices. Issues related to:
(i) Economic and Social Development :-
The role of local government in these fields has been urged in third world countries as essential to balance development. All southern movements beginning from 1947 the demand for federal government in South Sudan, the 1955 Torit Mutiny, the 1965 Round Table Conference, the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement and 1981 Regional Government in South Sudan, adopted by northern Sudan from five region to nine in 1983, are major purposes for federal activities to rapidly emerge where people or population is. It requires the promotion of active people’s participation as well as the integration of the government activities for the various geographical areas and governmental tasks.
The centralized system imposed on the people by the power in Juba causes instability and insecurity of southern states in terms of economical, political and socio – cultural aspects. Federal Governance will consequently be associated with the following objectives among others.
(a) to financially empower the local employees which in turn create social and economic changes.
(b) to avoid migration from states to the city (central government). Those victims of 15th December 2013 would have been spared.
(c) The dollar would have the benefit to the local people.
(d) Foreign Oil companies’ technical personnel are rightly employed and bound by central level regulation at the state level. They do not respect state advice whenever environmental problems occurred in the Oil fields. The historical of streams in a certain geographical area and the erecting of bridges is also another bargaining between the cost and the type of bridge supposed to be erected. An example is the Chinese companies which were sent from central Khartoum to build bridges in Unity state during the movement. As unity state is one of the examples, described as a swampy region by the colonial rule, all Chinese bridges could not endure to survive but collapsed and the streams could not retained their natural flow. They never applied to local technical advice that had a historical background on the geographical climate changes. Had the employment been from state government, technical specifications would have been adhered to. The security and use in oil fields should have respect to the local man of oil.
(e) The state & local governments: Just this title alone in size of population and land is by itself a country. It could not be just given with a spoon from its Oil revenue by a body in Juba which is controlling a very small unit without land or security or people they rule. War bridges which were built during war like the (three) bridges of Rubkona – Bentiu– 2/ Wangkai and Mayom are still a blockage of river Ghazal. Who is that son of a state in central level could initiate such? Has the central government thought of it one day during the past eight years of the transitional government (2006 until today 2014)? They were made by the enemy to fight the SPLA so as to get Oil, and it is hard for the same SPLA who is now the central power distributing Oil to decide on them.
(f) Political stability. State political organs shall organize and discuss state affairs within the eye of the state and local government authorities without bias from Juba.
(g) State and local government Financial Control Board of producing Oil should come up with their exact obliged Annual Budget Expenditure against Oil Receipts.
Obligation to Problems Facing the States:-
(1) [a] State Parties and Interest Groups:
State and Local Government are the source of democratic political conflict
- States and locals are the beginning of Party organization
States and locals are the source of interparty competition
States and locals are the Source of Political nomination
States and locals are the Centre of elections
States and locals are homes of people
States and local government are the areas that accommodate services
In southern states, campaigns still remains a highly individual undertaking. Therefore, the modern election administration in southern Sudan system to be adopted should contain the following elements:-
(1) Southern states, each should establish a centralized authority over elections in an administrative office headed by a single officer of state government.
(2) A state should finance voter registration, training of election personnel
(3) The state Chief Electoral Officer should be given real regulatory authority.
(4) Each state should establish an Election Council to provide partisan balance in the administration of elections.
(5) As election based on political competition, security tension is highly alerted. Such tension not found in the central election office, as Juba is a capital city of Central Equatoria but at the state and local government level.
(6) Since all election burden falls within state jurisdiction, it is the state to finance elections.
(2) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND FINANCIAL OBLIGATION:-
There is no act done without an area of jurisdiction. And there is no area of Jurisdiction without state or local authority to act, as there is no authority without legal and administrative powers based on financial ability. Therefore, the following three basic law enforcement, are the state and local government responsibilities. They look small on a paper but in execution they are financially big:-
– State Law Enforcement Agencies
– Local Law Enforcement Agencies
– The process of Law Enforcement
– The detention System
In South Sudan, each state should have its state police force and not the seconded police whose head decision making centers at a man in Juba ethnically oriented as shown by the massacre of thousands of Nuer citizens in Juba capital where there is the headquarters of all police in the South. It shall be the state to give varying title. Like special state highway patrol. Generally, the state police have the general jurisdiction to enforce all state laws. The top figure whether is called commissioner or superintendent of police shall be appointed by the governor and is responsible directly or indirectly to chief executive officer of the capital city. It is deemed, state police law agency is primarily an agency for the enforcement of law in rural areas. (The centre can be asked to return such money to state government chargeable against such services).
The following service activities are basically carried out by state and local governments; The objectives of local government make the state and the local government to have the right to exercise such services in the eyes of the people.
– Public school
– Public school Administration
– Money and Schools
– Groups and interests
– Local language
– The Politicization of Education.
– High Education
Democracy is a quality boasted by most modern governments whether overtly socialist or capitalist. Local government has been attributed with great democratic value, democracy, decentralization and development. In public responsibility, local government makes the public at large responsible for their local government and misgovernment. For example, public education is the centre of development. Participation in decision making and policy choices makes the ordinary citizen aware of the responsibilities and implication of government. About public accountability, this apply to the elected member who has to justify his leadership to the electorate who are in a position to see his utility, and to the local government officer who, in Dr. H. Marshal’s words “has his master on his doorstep” Of course states and local government assume the basic responsibility of the elementary and secondary schools for the financing and administration. Each state is master of its own jurisdiction. These schools are divided according to their administrative perspectives. County schools are managed by a county board of education with a county superintendent of education appointed by and responsible to the board. Now at present, city schools fall under the jurisdiction of the county board. In other cases, the cities are separate units and shall have their own schools and superintendents. The central government shall remit back the funds.
State centralized the administration and financing of local schools to the point that they have a state unit system. We must also understand and put to our mind that states governments shall assume important functions in the area of education. This applied responsibility can be grouped under four general categories:-
(1) Legislation establishing and regulating a system of public schools, supervision and control of local schools through state administrative agencies.
(2) Financial support for elementary and secondary schools.
(2) The maintenance of state colleges and universities. The state legislature that enacts the basic laws setting up and maintaining the public school system has a wide variety of subject. How local units shall be organized. The legislature may also determine what subjects (including local languages) are to be taught in the schools. The state certifies teachers and determines the length of the school year. All states shall have to set minimum salary standards of public schools teachers. Each state shall have one or more boards concerned with supervision and control. This board shall be commonly termed and the state board of education shall exercise some degree of control over elementary and secondary schools. Such a board is established either by the state constitution or by statute. While in practice varies, the most widely used method of choosing board members is appointment by the governor.
(3) South Sudan federal government should have its actual time zone, which is two hours from Greenwich (London at 00.07W). Sudan is taking educational curriculum back to British old system.
– Federal Highway Policy
– State Highway Administration
– State Highway Finance
– Recent Development in Transportation
– River transport.
(i) Since the CPA was endorsed on 9th Jan 2005, the world at large and the European community in particular have contributed billions of US Dollar to South Sudan towards maintaining peace objectives and infrastructure. Over the past eight years, the federal and states high roads are still as they were in 1960. No asspelt has been put except sand. The roads are still rough which make it difficult for security mobility whenever there is tribal fights between states. Highway robbers are still killing citizens on rough roads between states and local government throughout South Sudan. Commercial activities between states are equally hampered. This adversely affects interstate trade and unity for which is intended to foster. This is primarily federal State obligation to spearhead unity and not necessarily central government. With such facilities between states and local levels, indirectly harmony is created between the neighboring states operating on high roads owing to common service interest. As such posting of neighboring states police and commercial shops emerge.
From 2006 to date, these high ways have been financially administered by centralized government. However, had it been under the states, more better work would have been achieved. Such authority must come to states government and local governments.
(ii) Economic interest shall immediately emerge between inter-governmental states on Mechanized Agricultural Schemes in sorghum as neighboring states economic resources. This is to be utilized as states’ exports to neighboring countries and the entire world. Other state agricultural products that are of financial return such as cotton, rice, wheat and many others should have their agricultural seeds directly ordered from abroad instead of too much waste of time between central offices within the ministry of agriculture that has no land to invest and the state. Approval must be sought first from the state minister concerned within the shortest time possible to avoid losses when they are delayed.
(iii) Rivers and streams and central negligence:-
Rivers administration falls under the responsibilities of federal government because of its regional commitment worldwide. But should the state and local government just look/ gaze astonishing when these rivers and the life belt of citizens are being completely neglected by the central government in Juba since the time when CPA was signed. There are no scientific reports given to the world community since we achieved a country as to why there is flood every year than before. Is it because of too much money at the centre that makes nobody think about problems at far distance?
The old Sudan witnessed three floods:-
a) 1948-1949 flood, the rethinking of Jungli Canal and the year I was born.
b) 1964 flood. The year we closed down schools and we joined the first movement
c) 1988 flood
The concerned office in Juba for reasons known to central government whether lack of specialization or not, could not at all have a glance at the period between the three floods. Sometimes there are things that do not need specialization, if we have to believe in God. The period between the three floods is so long compared to the period of every year flood we have now. Do they know why?
Before talking about the two lakes; Victoria and Tana, and about rains that caused to the rise of the Nile and hundreds of streams, we must know that God said to the man when sending him to the earth. “I have created you according to my image and given you everything on earth but take care about yourself”. See the difference between 1949 and 1988 – 39 years. This is the same concept in God the different between 1988 and 1964 – 24 years. The 39 and 24 years is the concept of God for human being to be regarded as man. It is a stage when man can endure natural disaster. And without pride the three floods in administration compared to what we have today would have been the end of people of the Nile.
In those years the administration of rivers was given special attention because of fear of Nile basin to get full with alluvium than what are rivers have today. Each district that has a river like River Gazal, Sobat and Zaraf or those districts that the Nile passes through their territories were assigned steam boats with paddle to regulate navigation. Western Nuer District (Bentiu) was assigned Sir Lee Stark Steam boat which was given the name Abu-Anja after Sudan Independence 1956. Wad-elnajume steam boat was assigned to Eastern Nuer District Nasir for Sobat River then to branch south to Gile River at Akobo District in Central Eastern Nuer. Nekhile steam boat was assigned to Zeraf River at Central Nuer Pangak. About those districts which the Nile passes through them were allotted two main big steam paddling boats, Amatony steam boat and Kerery. At malakal every Saturday passengers travelling to Juba assembled at river port waiting for Amatony or Kerery. And conversely, on every Wednesday at Malakal river port passengers assembled waiting for the boat to arrive Malakal from Juba. That was just under the administration of officials those days when there was no Oil and USD to engage tribalism over power. Now the rivers basins are full with silt or alluvium causing the basin high for waters to overflow in lands and cause floods and too much destruction.
The three main river transport of South Sudan are: Bhr eljabel which flows from Lake Victoria in Uganda passing through Nimuli Port in Central Equtoria State. Then from Nimuli passing through Juba, Jungli, and Lake states until it meets with Bhar elghazal at Lake-No in Unity state at 9⁰ 45 Lat and 32⁰E long. And river Ghazal flows from lakes Ombandi in central DRC crossing Bhar elgazal state to Unity State and meets Bahr el Jabel at Lake No. River Sobat which flows from Ethiopia high hills then runs westwards to meet River Nile at Khorfluos South Malakal in Upper Nile at 8⁰ 45 Lat and 31⁰ 55 East. Here the river is called the White Nile until it meets the junction with river Blue Nile north of Elkartoum and is called Nahr elniel. Lastly river Zeraf a branch from Bhr eljabel passing through central Nuer the swampiest area in Jungli state meets Bhr eljabel at Wathkec river pole at in central Nuer of Pangak in Jungli State.
The administration of these three rivers and Bahr eljabel should be divided into three parts:
(1). the river administration: by federal government owing to its regional concerns.
(2). Transportation service e.g. steamers, boats: by the federal states governments concerned.
(3) River clearance should be state responsibility. Such intensive care always depends on the beneficiary or the state having economic importance. State legislative Assembly should not be passive and get overshadowed by central guidance, but rather take on a center stage to enact appropriate laws for state conducive utilization of the rivers.
(4). The signing of road construction and contracts: In regard to this, all these contracts should be done at a state level as opposed to the central government. These central contracts with individuals or private companies authorized by one official, at the centre causes a deficit gap on Oil state Revenue distribution to states and local governments obliged services. When done at state level, it helps to balance state obliged services and expenditure on such ventures. Besides, the deals signed at the central level with foreign and local companies are related to state economic development in regards to Oil Revenue. Such contracts should balance the states budgets. The country is not directly financing individuals to get rich, but projects that are executed by states and local government in kind of services to benefit locals and returns to central authorities in form of smooth rapid development.
(5). Clearance and treatment of waters from water hyacinth and water lily should be the responsibility of states governments concerned. This water blockage affects state citizen economically as well as security wise. The case of river Gazal in unity state is an example. The economic and social importance of rivers is not known to officials centrally appointed. In sixties, when we were pupils in Bentiu primary school, nobody could give an exact picture of the condition of river Ghazal waters and how they look like before. We were screening coins at the bottom river Ghazal when swimming. The Sardine fish and the Nile perch were the main fish of clean waters in river Ghazal which can be economically utilized now. Funds of such responsibility must return to states government.
(5) WELFARE, HEALTH & HOUSING
(i) Health program is the responsibility of state and local governments in accordance to population and development. In regards to MEDICARE, States are obliged to carry on health insurance for individuals especially the elderly, and especially in a state producing Oil. This project provides for hospital care and plan for physicians services. For instance MEDICAID is health insurance for the poor of all ages funded under a cooperative state-federal program. These humanitarian plans have been ignored by the central level and now being claimed by states and local government, the areas of responsibilities. The proposed establishment of SOCIAL SECURITY ACT 2O15 after loss of thousands of lives by the alleged coup shall be introduced and put into practice. This planned war has caused million of orphans and widows without dependency. Will the invisible hands take care of them? This program includes social insurance, public assistance, children health care, and welfare services.
(ii) State housing programs.
(iii) State to establish welfare policy in states and local governments is essential during such unfair crisis. The rate of poor people is now rising at the expense of the poor family without income rate. States capitals and cities shall establish houses for those who patently are incapable of work. Constitutional figures and retired senior executive personals are targeted by this project. But all these aspiration could not succeed unless states and local governments are given their rights to centralize such responsibilities through a federal system.
In experience of 22 years in local government, I strongly emphasize that local government is the base of socio-economic development and political competition that standardized the central power. This does not mean federal government in Juba is neglected, but has the supervision over states governments. There is no central power without political figures descended from local government. State and local governments could do a better job in many social aspects as well as development than the central system. Question of youth and sport, how they could be treated in regards to national unity, is the social environmental locality where they were brought up and not the centre to make a show. We have evidence that things can be done in a better manner more effectively and efficiently at the state and local level.
Both as candidate and as president, Ronald Reagan has been consistent in his belief that state and local government could do a better job in many social areas than the federal government. This belief was most succinctly expressed by Drew Lewis, a deputy director of the Reagan Transition Team who subsequently became secretary of the Department of Transportation. In a statement to governors and legislators on 25th November 1980, he declared “Whatever power, money and authority that can be returned to the state and local level will be returned”.
John Juan Dong
Retired Administrative officer of local government.
“ We are sons of God, and with God we tell the truth, and with the truth we have made a country with the help of world community God created” 15/5/2014