By Yien Lam,

ANYANYA1: The flag of Southern Sudanese Separatism, Anyanya 1(1969-1972) under the leadership of  Aggrey Jaden (1967-1969), Gordon Muortat Mayen (1969-1971) and Joseph Lagu (1971-1972) (Photo: Anyanya/Nyamilepedia)
ANYANYA1: The flag of Southern Sudanese Separatism, Anyanya 1(1969-1972) under the leadership of Aggrey Jaden (1967-1969), Gordon Muortat Mayen (1969-1971) and Joseph Lagu (1971-1972) (Photo: Anyanya/Nyamilepedia)

Dec 23, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — The ideological war between nationalists and hijackers started in 1983.But South Sudanese struggle for the nascent nation of ours has been there for years. The mentioned date was not the inception of south Sudanese struggle as erroneous being stressed by South Sudan TV as the main breaking point of struggle. This is not the case, I want to be crystal clear about what my kith from other side always been saying as the starting point of our struggle. Historically, 1983 was not the beginning of our struggle. The history of this great nation’s fight began beyond the above cited date. In fact, it began well before 1947 known as Juba convention, August 18, 1955 in Torit and 1975 Akobo mutiny. It was so because Sudan itself was colonized differently. It had different administrations in the first place. The reason for it being the most important day in our struggle is simple. It is power and domination of one tribe. If it is not so, 1983 would have not been valued as such in the history of our country because it was in fact, the obstacle that took us backward. It left as being ambivalence for eight years where we lost the direction and the vision in pursue of goals and interest as the SPLM/A till 1991.

To set the history clear on June 12 & 13 Juba conference, chief Both Diu said “there should be no settlement by Northerners on land in the South without permission and there must be no interference from the North in local government in the South.” When you look at this statement from uncle Both Diu, you will definitely know that people like him were doubting the rule of Northerners and indicated that South will stand by itself without the North. This is the clear evidence of the South being divorced from the North since then. As the quote delineate it, is there anything that indicated to us that we will one day united with North? Be the judge. In my answer, we were not and treated differently by British due to our cultural, ethnicity and religious differences. We were and still are different people who deserved to have different countries as we are now on the eyes of all people except our own cousins who tried very hard to rewrite the history of our beloved country. We read books and found what they said about South Sudan and Sudan. There was no unity of Sudan. But was injected into the system by British when it was leaving. South and North were ruled as the different entity during the British rule in Sudan. There should be nobody preaching or attempting to change that than only cousins of mine who have tried to insert themselves to the history that they were not a part of at the beginning. However, during the preparation of the British to leave the Sudan, it created 800 administrative posts for what it call “Sudanese self-rule.” When a division of the representatives took place, Southern provinces were essentially omitted from the political practice in Sudan and were only given four out of 800 positions in central government in Khartoum.

This disparity led to the Mutiny of an August 18, 1955 in Torit and became the first civil war where the first bullet was shot in the fight against the oppressive regime in Khartoum. This was done by courageous southern soldiers known as “Equatoria corp” led by Gen. Tafeng of Equatoria. This was the group who spearheaded the Torit uprising and was the beginning of the rebellion against the inhuman treatment of the people of South Sudan by British back Northerner government. It was not known to be rebellion for the unity of the Sudan because there was no event one Sudan at the time. This rebellion took south Sudanese 17 years until Addis Ababa agreement on February 27, 1972 where by south was represented by Abel Alier. From there, Sudan government did not followed or putted in practice the demand of Southerners.

This led to 1975 in Akobo Mutiny by  LT.Vencent Kuany Latjor a( Nuer) and sergeant Bol Kur who hailed from Shilluk  against the government .This rebellion was based on the South Sudanese to have their place recognized by whoever in power at the time. An Akobo rebellion led to the formation of the Anya nya two in 1977 headquartered in Bilpam later used by SPLMA.

Eight years later, Bor and Ayod mutinies led by major kerubino Kuanyin Bol (Dinka) and William Nyuon Bany (Nuer) respectively ensued. This was not about the unity of Sudan as cousins of mine may have insisted on since 1983.This was not the case, the case was to liberate South Sudan as the separate nation as we have it on July 9, 2011 and called it republic of south Sudan. As the name may have suggested, we are different entity with the Sudan culturally, religiously and ethnically. As the matter became known to all south Sudanese, Samuel Gai Tut and his group that include Gatjiak wie who was a head of him in lou Nuer area since 1982  also jointed the rebellion in 1983   in Bilpam because they knew there were people who dissatisfy with the government of the Sudan. Not only that, Dr.Garang also jointed his countrymen in Bilpam in the winter of the same year. This was thought to be incredible time for south Sudanese to fight the war of purpose not other way around.

Unfortunately, May 16, 1983 that supposed to be added to historical events  in south Sudan became heartfelt experience and  completed U turn that took us to the highway of nowhere for eight years until the redirection in 1991.In that year, Conflict manifested by the two camps during the leadership selection. This one happened between Kuot Atem camp and Dr.Garang’s. The disagreements were fierce to who will be the leader of the movement and its name. Samuel Gai Tut camp or Kuot Atem I would say  wanted Kuot Atem to be the leader of the movement followed by Samuel and Dr.Garang as the third person in the movement. But Dr.Garang’s camp feigned Samuel Gai Tut to be a leader followed by Him and Kuot as the Third person. This was where things gone terribly wrong. They discussed that for hours and hours until Kuot was selected by the majority as the leader with objection of Dr.Garang’s camp and followed by Samuel Gai Tut and Dr.Garang as the third person and the name of the movement remain ANYANYATWO.But had plan B as The SPLM/A in term of support from The Ethiopian government that did not want the name ANYANYA TWO because of its fight against its separatist rebels. This was worked out and finalized as SPLM/A with the condition mentioned earlier. When the meeting was concluded, Dr.Garang De-mabior was given the paper to deliver it to the Ethiopia government led by Mengistu. When Dr.Garang reached where his friend Mengistu Haile Mariam was, things changed rapidly. The regime in Ethiopia had an issue of above as threat because Eritrea needs independent as they suggested ealier in their meeting. From there Magistu calculate it if he gave Dr.Garang De mabor ok with his paper as the nationalist that would be threat to his governmet.Then he told Dr.Garag to go back and change the name of your movement. Then Dr.Garang gave him the name SPLM/A as agreed upon by his countrymen .Mengistu was happy with it.When Dr.Garang cook his mind as well as his objection for the leadership, he putted himself as the leader of SPLM/A instead of Kuot and did not reporting back to the people who sent him there.

As the result, he hijacked it and became the leader of the movement with backing of the Ethiopia military. From there, the man became the boss and refused to talk to Samuel’s group because of the power invested on him by the Ethiopia government. Within that, Samuel and his group spent seven days in place called Ngota in Itang hoping to negotiate with Dr.Garang’s. In this scenario, Samuel Gai Tut intention was to sort out the groups’ differences and worked out what will be the best way for the movement to resuscitate. But Dr.Garang and his kith did not buy the Samuel Gai’s. Within that situation, Samuel group tried to run away back to Sudan.  On the way, the group was followed and attacked. Tragically, my eye, kith, elder, brother, paternal uncle, father and most of all, father- in law was killed by Dr.Garang’s camp in Thiajak on April 15, 1984. In this case if any can be forgotten, this one cannot be. When Samuel was killed by the SPLA in Thiajiak, his body was whipped with 40 lashes until it disseminated. That was unbelievable thing to have been done to the dead body in the history of mankind. It was done only to that particular person ever. Believe it or not, 1984 date marked the turning point of the South Sudan history because movement was left divided with leading side with the philosophy and the goals of interests without direction and vision of south Sudan and the other with direction and vision with limit political will. From there, Chuol, Kuot and the rest ran away to Lou Nuer areas to fight the SPLM/A untill Chuol was killed.This fight last for three years.In 1987, Kuanylou peace agreement was signed between SPLM/A and Koang Chuol Faction in Eastern Nuer. This was thought to be the lasting reunification between the SPLM/A and Anyanya two. Unfortunately, this was not the case because the treatment of the people by the SPLM/A will never change. It was the case then, and still has been. We need to change it around this time. Calling the really people of the land “ Nyagaat, malitias unconfirmed and countless others was and still a threat to the well being of the South Sudanese. Within those reasons, the other remnants of ANYANYA TWO did not join.

Four years later, on August 28/1991, civil war within civil war broke out with a vision or what I call the renewal of the South Sudan dream carried out by visionary leader by the name Dr.Riek Machar Teny in Nasir Town. This rebellion was the revitalization of the two Anyanyas with the vision of self-determination and a direction of South Sudan. Believe it or not, without 1991, South Sudan would have not been the country as we speak.1991 was the key to our independent as the South Sudanese today. I am so proud of people who were given us the golden opportunity to have our beloved nation of South Sudan as our forefathers were fighting for. I sincerely think, August 28,1991 will be among South Sudanese national holy day in the years to come mark my word. Some may agree not with me on it. But I strongly believe in my gut that will be the case for the sake of history. Folks Things do not happen. Things are made to happen according to the history. If you are denying the history, you are denying yourself.You cannot erase it rather than rewriting it with logical agreement. Anyone who denies 1991 as not the redirection or turning point of south Sudanese struggle is nerd who needs medical attentions if not already retarded in the history of south Sudan. To be sincere though, 1991 is not bad date. It was only bad if you are goofy person in nature. I am saying this because without it, we would have not voted for the independent of South Sudan in 2011. Self-determination was born by 1991.It was not bad and cannot be counted as the problem. It should be praise instead because it gave us what we proudly call South Sudan rather than the unionists’ idea of “New Sudan”

Therefore, this is not happening in Kiir’s leadership. The regime keeps reminding and vomiting  political vengeance to  the public with 1991 like it was only its people were killed in that date than the other. Let me make myself clear here. 1991 was the fight for the sake of direction and vision within the SPLM/A leadership that cannot be blame on one side if kiir and his sycophants are thinking rationally. Both side had killed a great number of people. Blaming should be on both side if that is the case base on the word “killing.”  As it was the case in 1993 in Ayod, Uror. In addition, SPLM/A establishment should watch itself on the mirror as it does to other. For instance, SPLA had butchered innocents Nuers civillians in Manjangdit and lietnyaruai in 1985.Should those be counted as the massacre or only Dinka killing is worthy it? People! if you want to judge, do it to yourself then to other. If others think that all of the above are not known, think again. People with myself included are not talking about those because we all know the meaning of civil war. If my cousins do not know it, let other south Sudanese tell them the meaning of civil war. I believe any sounds minded person would say yes. War is war and in some sense people may be caught in between.

In this matter, I do not think unionists are negating authenticity of 1991 as a turning point or historic day. I candidly doubt it.They do recognize it internally. But jealous about it being the morning star that brought South Sudanese to what they all want rather than the illusion idea of “new Sudan”. As the matter of fact, Unionists will have tough days ahead if they are not already had it.Weather they keep Unionists symbols or not, South Sudanese are watching them closely. It will be a matter of time to have our country back from the vague idea of hijackers.

Moreover, in 2002, nationalists came in conclusion to join the SPLM/A. This was not because they were giving up what they were fighting for. It was the reason of unity of purpose for all South Sudanese. Unionists agreed on the issue of self-determination. Within that reason, they were very vigilant that being as scattered as we were was not good thing for us to get our country. Nationalists care less about the positions than having South Sudan as the country. That was only nationalists’ interest in our beloved Nation. Some people took the 2002 reunification out of context based on their interest than the interest of the nation. In anywhere in the world, a person who slaps his/her chest, puts the country first followed by other interests. But in this country of ours, it is not the case. The Case is planning to eliminate the oppositions with in the country rather than thinking judiciously about infrastructures that includes schools, roads, hospitals, agriculture’s, and so forth.

Nevertheless, nationalists became submissive as most people may call them, for the sake of our country. No more or less. It was the sole purpose for them to do. The idea is, without South Sudan nothing will be feasible. That was why Dr. Riek Machar Teng was trying everything to lure people to accept self-determination including the very Sudan by signing the Khartoum peace agreement in 1997. These were all about getting south Sudan as the nation. If you are Nationalists, you have a vision and a direction in order for you to be a good leader. A leader as my uncle Salva kiir Mayardiit whose vision is to Kill innocents civilians whose crimes were only being Nuers and abuse booze will never be allowed again to rule our beloved country of south Sudan. In addition, anyone who keeps the record of the past and s/he is in position of leadership is not fit to lead the country. The purpose of being a leader is to forgive and forget. The leader who constantly reminds people with the past is not a builder rather than a destroyer. A genuine leader always tries very hard to erase the past by creating new things to build that particular society to be prosperous than reviving them.

However in this case, I would want to direct my advice to spectators as it may be the case for some in South Sudan. This is an irrational believe for you as the bible James chapter 2 verse 17 says, faith without works is dead. This problem is not for Nuers alone as some my erroneously think in their daily live. It is however, a policy of finishing Nuers first and come to you later. If one looks at it closely, it is not Nuer’s issue. It is in fact, south Sudanese problem as you may have read the history of our country above this article. South Sudanese fought collectively as Nationalists throughout history until my cousins took the U turn in 1983 and overwhelmingly overturned in 1991 and finalized in 20011. This is the vision most of us have a desire to have. If that is so, don’t hesitate to join the cause. Waiting the donkey end of the month will indeed victimize you greatly. This is a time for all of us to fight for our right as south Sudanese to have a voice in our country as the people of this nation. Everyone in this country has the right to rule regardless of his tribe. As long as that individual is an ably body who could build this great nation. It is not a one tribe show as it has been the case since 1983.Everyone could have a chance to rule South Sudan as long as that person is South Sudanese. It is an indecent idea for anyone of us in the south to suppress other as it has been the case for the last 58 years. We must reject the copycat system. We need to have our own system that will be independent from the system that took as to the bush in first place.

Nonetheless, today South Sudan has historical bias created by this regime if not the past one. The regime recognizes public

events to its kin only dating such as May 16,th 1983   and July 30th 2005 in which in fact should be celebrated. But what about other like Torit mutiny in August18, 1955 as well as Akobo mutiny in 1975 respectively? Be the judge! To be sincere though, these two historical occurrences have nowhere to be found in today’s South Sudan.  They have been relegated to the ashes in the minds of regime’s supporters. But still alive on the thoughts of most South Sudanese. However, in numerous national events and commemorations, the heroes of today South Sudan struggle have been presented by regime’s kith as the only ones that had achieved everything in all sort of life when the regime seemed to recognize the past. But mostly, the whole history has been shifted from 1983 to present.  If one seriously looks at that, how would it be possible without heeding the contributions that had been done by the people in the mentioned dates? would it be possible for the food being eaten without being cook? Be the judge! But I am neither denying1983  contribution nor discredited 2005.what I am saying is, we should value all historical days as fairly  as we could. Being biased to our history as it has been the issue in this regime is valueless.  This is the reality and only Moron backers of the regime may have negated this. A free biased individual cannot and will never deny this facts ever.

Finally, history must be redirected to its bases in colonized era as well as 1947,1955,1975,1991 and 2011.the Hijackers must not be given a chance to do what they are always been doing to the history of south Sudan. They miserably failed us and deserved not to be acknowledged of anything worth mentioning rather than preaching the fruits of hatred and killings of innocents South Sudanese in which will not be the case in a days if not months to come. Therefore, we must unite ourselves for the unity of purpose to end the war and fix the Leadership problem as well as creating the laws that will be above all than people being above them. Otherwise, South Sudan will be left in jeopardy for the years if not months to come because there is no reason for tranquility to be in the country without addressing the root cause of the problem as well as bringing the perpetrators of human agony into justice.

The author is independent thinker and a concerned South Sudanese that can be reached at lam981@hotmail.com

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