By Atek Lual Achuil
August 10, 2020 (Nyamilepedia) – The National economy is the lifeline for survival and for human existence and its failure amounts to several problems that our country will continue to be engulfed in for quite sometimes.
Going back to briefly ascertain our economic trajectory, one must say that, 2005 was the year CPA became fully operationalized bringing along various dividends and opportunities that boosted the economic potential of the Sudan. Citizens enjoyed relative peace, followed with a number of factors that tried to improve people’s livelihoods across the country.
These factors included the hiked prices of crude oil at the international market, an immense return of refugees from the neighboring countries and abroad with some skills, the voluntary opening of all borders boosting the revenue position of the then treasury, availability of monetary and fiscal policies regulating the economic management and the gigantic flows of financial assistance and donations into the country from friends, allies and members of the international community; notably the Oslo Donors Conference that was convened from 11th to 12th April 2005 in Norway.
All these factors enabled the TGoNU and people to enjoy the aftermath of peace till sometimes when things began to change.
The Southern Sudan economy as young as it was, but part of the entire Sudanese economic framework, never continued to enjoy the honeymoon after the independence in 2011.
Several factors ensued including but not limited to the closure of oil flow, corruption and mismanagement plus the already existing poor infrastructural networks. The war of 2013 plus the devaluation of our local currency in 2016 opened the doors wide to the unexpected future we eventually arrived to.
These, and all others cannot therefore hold to be the centers of our blame games, but rather learn from them while seeking other avenues to rescue the present economic situation from getting worse. This article therefore attempts to underline key challenges facing the economy and come up with some policy recommendations for retreat.
Twenty-two major factors that have led to our Economic Demise
Once an economy has failed or is failing, people point figures entirely at the government as the first victim and later relinquish their flames to officials entrusted with the mandate to manage the said economy. Now, as things are getting worse with US Dollars hiking at approximately 1 US to 400 SSP, the masses are the ones paying the price for the poor management.
In order for us to move out of this challenge, there should be no day dreaming that issues might change for better in the future. We might live in this situation at least for sometimes for some years until the government undertakes some drastic measures with some cautiousness. Below are the major factors that have destroyed our economy;
- Political instability and insecurity
When i talk about the impacts that the instability and widespread insecurity have caused, am pointing out how these main factors have immensely contributed to the collapse of our economy.
Insecurity obstructs the free movement of goods, services and people. Though insecurity existed within CPA’s interim period, what the country has witnessed from since the war erupted in 2013 upto to day is incomparable. Properties have been destroyed, banks looted, foreign investors withdrawn and finally the capital flight of our revenues into the neighboring countries resulted.
Political instability engages the government to divert resources to finance the war and what possibly results is the war economy. All others related to these are self-explanatory.
- Corruption and resource mismanagement
The problem of corruption in South Sudan is unexplainable, because it has become an institutionalized aspect being perpetuated within the apexes of various governmental organs. It is something being done with and without the knowledge of those doing it.
Corruption in our South Sudan context is understood to be an essence of taking public money or material assets as your personal belongings, but, it is more than our current perception. It is largely more of advancing nepotism, bribery, favourism or embezzlement within the public institutions for private gains.
All these anti-public vices have been perpetuated within the governmental institutions without exceptions, and these have contributed to the economic collapse.
Major corrupt practices are being advanced within the areas of contracts where some public officials get tips in form of percentages once a particular institution declares a bid to implement its annual projects.
Of course these contracts don’t get implemented in any way possible, otherwise, we would have had roads covering every part of South Sudan by now, since 2011 and before.
So, to speak, corruption and resource mismanagement endanger an economy in that, they duo drain and divert financial resources, hence, obstructing the provision of critical infrastructures & services to the people.
These infrastructures and services if provided would in turn improve the economic growth.
Millions and billions of cash have been looted and invested outside South Sudan. How do you get back such capital? Is that not milking your own cow to death while not feeding it? The answers are yours.
- Poor infrastructural network
What i mean about this is how our lack of critical infrastructures affect the economic viability and growth. Without roads, bridges, railways, pipelines, airports, tapped water, electricity and the telecommunications facilities, there is no way an economy can grow.
Currently, we are still lacking many of them with exception of few roads and airports which are also in very dilapidated conditions. Good road networks, well-constructed international airports, presence of electricity and tapped water are the key prerequisites for a modestly progressive economy. Without them, investors cannot dare come and invest, because their absence is a financial risk to them due to high overhead costs.
- Lack of clear monetary and fiscal policies designed and enforced by the MoFP & BoSS
The Central Bank of South Sudan commonly known as BOSS is an independent public and financial institution responsible for the management and the regulation of monetary issues within the borders of South Sudan. It is the custodian of all government revenues in form of cash or holdings. It also regulates all the commercial banks, credit institutions, money transfer entities, and insurance companies and supplies forex bureaus with cash.
The vital function of Central Bank is to manage public revenues especially the reserves by advising on any misuse by the executive and this vital aspect has been greatly undermined and seriously abused.
Our hard currency reserves in the Central Bank which would have supported the strength of our local currency and market stability have long been squandered by some powerful individuals within the government leaving a huge foreign currency deficit.
Organizations, companies and individuals lost trust with that effect, and they either withdrew their cash or opened up separate hard currency accounts in the neighboring countries.
Other financial institutions also lost stamina with the central bank and decided to bank their hard currency outside South Sudan. Can’t all these issues destroy an economy?
So, to be precise, all the IGOs, INGOs, NNGOs, CSOs, CBOs and Faith Based Organizations and their employees due to lack of credibility and stability of our central bank decided to keep their hard currency outside the country while perpetually operating here.
Commercial banks and other financial institutions have also done the same thing, not forgetting that the already banked public revenues normally get squeezed out with ease and with no trace for recovery.
So, how does a troubled monetary body improves price stability in the market by pumping in more dollars supposedly, when its credibility on reserve management is no more?
The World Bank and IMF long lost trust with our central bank, and crucially with other economic institutions and decided to withhold their financial assistance, donations and loans due to lack of commitment to its regulations, guidelines and procedures.
All the named factors have contributed to an economic failure.
On the other side of the story, the Ministry of Finance & Planning which is mandated to manage, regulate and impose all the fiscal and financial standards has not been doing the real job. No financial policies, procedures, guidelines and standards that have been made public since its foundation.
How do people there operate? Could it be the reason why there are always long queues in the ministry by those making follow-ups and claims? Where is an electronic financial information management system which does and controls things with ease? Why accumulate claims from the spending agencies for every financial year?
Where does this money go when a particular fiscal budget year is closed? Why does the ministry issue cheques for claims to individuals which are not verified by the procurement authority? Is the procurement authority operational anyway or turned into a lipstick?
All these questions if answered, then, we will have gotten closure to the correct analogies to some of our economic challenges arising from the poor management of the ministry since day one.
So, to rest on this arguement, it should profoundly be acknowledged that lack of proper financial guidelines and standards prepare room for wanton malpractices that give way for financial illicitness.
Such acts damage the economic reputations and hence its performance.
- Sanctions, embargoes, blockades, economic barriers and road blocks impede the economic progress & performance.
All the above named factors significantly retard major economic successes and wellbeing of any country if there are no policies designed to counter them. The principles of demand and supply can only be realized when the market is not constrained by these factors.
South Sudan has had a painful path to the achievements of its economic potential due to international sanctions, embargoes and unnecessary blockades and road blocks forced on by some members of the security forces who tend to serve their private interests.
Sanctions and blockades destroy an economy in the sense that, financial flows on donations and assistance are withheld by donors widening the already existing budget deficit while economic barriers in form of high tarrifs, quotas, fees and charges implicate the situation the more.
Policies of protectionism and state intervention are long abandoned by many liberal states due to their obstruction of the economic growth.
A country supposedly operating on laissez-faire principles must abandon protectionism and state restrictions on trade.
Blockades are bad because once goods and services are charged highly by tax officials and by members of the illegal checkpoints, then, we are transfering these burdens to the consumers who are our citizens due to a corresponding increase on the prices of these goods by the suppliers. In another words, a supplier would add extra charges on a particular commodity to cover up loses that would have resulted from those factors.
This is one reason why prices increase uncontrollably in our markets.
Also note that, the international sanctions smear our economy with other bad odours as a result of influence and coordinated targeting of the key financial institutions that trade with South Sudan, for instance; the oil operating companies have been experiencing these very facts.
- Poor revenue collection mechanisms
Recently, the National Revenue Authority has been operationalized, though, still weak and lacks capacity and manpower to fulfill its mandate, credit should be due to those who initiated the idea.
The problem therefore, is its credibility to implement the given mandate with prowess. Continued misuse of these collected revenues detracts the economy in many ways.
In a real sense, these revenues should be prudently managed for the purposes of providing services which would be the catalysts for an economic boom.
If these funds are privately expropriated, then, the ministry wouldn’t be able to pay salaries, cater for operational overhead costs and equally allocate some for capital goods. All these are interlinked and attempts to undermine one lead to an opposite impact on the other.
- Total dependence on imports and the underdevelopment of exports
South Sudan is an import oriented country that is unable to stand on its own feet when things go sour. This is because; she doesn’t produce any good or commodity.
Lack of domestic production enslaves a country, and it can be easily manipulated by the importing states, whether by the neighboring states or by the international importers of specialized goods and commodities to their terms of interests.
Currently, we are not producing any other commodity except oil making us a single commodity exporter. If there are other products we are importing- for instance, furniture, then, it is solely being done by individuals not on a large scale. This doesn’t mean, we don’t have resources to export, but lack of productive capacity by the state or by individuals coupled with low levels of investors’ interests impede the whole process.
This problem will continue to exist unless the government creates its own parastatals and funded fully in order to specialize and produce various types of goods and commodities needed in our local markets.
- Lack of clear National Economic Policy framework
In my previous article, i had thoroughly discussed the need to formulate an economy strategy that would guide policy and decision makers on our clear economic direction as a country. I said, this policy ought to be produced annually and reviewed from time to time in order to meet the existing realities of the economic trajectory in the world.
I had suggested earlier that, the government should create an economic advisory council to be staffed with experts from across various academic disciplines and dutied with the formulation of this strategy.
This council would be reporting to the President and the minister in charge of our national economy for at least monthly basis, advising on key areas that require quick and timely decisions. There, we are waiting for the recap from the top authority.
Currently, we lack such a body, when most countries have long created theirs. Who shall our blames be directed to, the Finance Minister, Governor of the Central Bank or the Presidency?
- Unskilled and lazy manpower which is non-innovative and unproductive as a result of poor educational system and bad mindset
Talking about manpower in South Sudan, one must look at the nature, mindset and behaviors of our youth in relations to economic productivity. Are our youth productive and innovative? The answer is definitely no, because, the prevailing situation attests to the fact that many if not all youth are lazy and undesirable and therefore cannot support economic growth.
Economic productivity is brought about by the nature of the educational setup of a country followed by work ethics.
Both our educational system and work ethics are poor and lack standards and threshold to be compared with any or to be measured qualitatively.
The result of this is that the existing manpower in South Sudan cannot support our economic growth. This is due to their statistical disarrays. Majority lack formal or basic education that qualify them as manual workforce. The second group are the semi-illiterates, who are engaged in unproductive activities for instance communal fights and feuds, gossips and rumor mongerings.
Most of them end up joining the security sector being recruited through ethnic affiliations and some enter the market as boda boda cyclists and as public or commercial vehicle drivers. Are they supporting our economy in any way?
The last group are those who call themselves graduates, high school dropouts and technicians with basic knowledge in health education, teaching, carpentry and etc. This group is multi-layered with some supporting the economy while others complacently engaged in negative media propaganda, divisive community or regional associations and of course at the national and state politics.
With all these observations, whom has our market been left with? Of course the foreigners.
Many would decree the absence of capital to start the business as the problem, while others blaming lack of employment.
All these claims are incorrect and misleading in the sense that many Nilotes who form majority of our youth in this country have at least basic resources to help them kickoff a business. They have abundant cattle, goats, flocks of sheep, poultry and suitable soils and rivers that support cash crop growing and fishing. Are we using these opportunities?
Others believe, they need a 100,000 USD to start a business. This is our mindset and it can’t help whatsoever.
The issue is, we have not mastered the rules governing the market, because we are pegged down by some unfortunate mindset linked to our traditional African structure of extended family setup which promotes redundancy and laziness.
Currently, a house of a politician; be it an MP or a National Minister is flocked with more than ten or twenty youths who are jobless and unpurposely migrated from their villages looking for white collar jobs they cannot afford getting. These politicians on the other hand, allow them stay and sometimes use them for their inert political gains.
The question is, how are these huge number of youths fed and catered for? Will these politicians not feed them on resources looted from the public corpus? We must remain to digest these questions.
- Lack of business capital financing institutions
In order for an economy to grow, individuals with academic and technical capabilities must be financed in order to help them establish micro businesses through the initiatives of loans taken from micro finance institutions.
Do we have such institutions? Is the Agricultural Bank of South Sudan offering such incentives and offers on affordable interest rates? I mention this bank because, it is the only financial institution we have currently with some government shares that is to be suposedly giving loans to the potential Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMCEs)
We must acknowledge that, in order for the market to be competitive, and particularly with the facilitation of young and innovative youths to join it, there is an ultimate need for such institutions.
Countries with fastest growing economies have adopted this strategy as one of their means of achieving a balanced economic trajectory. Without these institutions, we are just day dreaming of creating a country we would all be proud of. Young people with innovative and constructive ideas can die with, due to lack of capital to sell and nurture these ideas.
- Devaluation of the local currency
First, let me define devaluation as an intended downstairs adjustment of the value of a country’s currency against a foreign currency on a fixed exchange rate. Devaluation is a tool advanced by the monetary authorities to improve a country trade deficits by boosting the positions of exports.
This process of devaluing a local currency comes along when a Central Bank owns some foreign currency reserves and willing to buy and sell its local currency in an attempt to pop up its monetary value.
Before the devaluation when our central bank had enough foreign currency reserves, a system of floating exchange rate was in place. Now, the question is, when our monetary authorities decided to devalue our currency; where they doing it in good faith or out of ignorance?
Some of the major reasons why a local currency is devalued are; boosts exports position, shrink trade deficits and reduce sovereign debt burdens. Where these the main reasons why our currency was devalued?
The answers are mixed, some, of course yes and others no. In the case of exports, we have only one, that is crude oil and others nil. For the matter of trade deficits, there was a sense in which devaluation was necessary, because the central bank was already having less or no foreign currency reserves due to misuse and our traders in demand of such were in dare need so they could import goods and commodities from outside the country.
The days of letter of credits were long gone and nobody remembered how much of them were issued and what strings were attached to.
At the same time, the country was already burdened with lots of loans borrowed from the potential creditors whose future of interests returns were questionable. Which country or company could risk borrowing its cash to a troubled country like ours with an increasing drop in the main export’s international prices?
So to summarize, it was unwise to devalue our currency in the time when the central bank was lacking sufficient reserves to buy its local currency in an attempt to boost its strength. The recipe for disaster became the uncontrollable increase in the prices of goods and commodities due to lack of foreign currency to purchase the imports.
With the already existing dependence on crude oil as the only export, coupled with the mismanagement of revenues hailing from it, nothing could change our market situation.
The result was and would continue to be complete depreciation of our currency in the eyes of the foreign ones. Our current exchange rate might exceed its existing levels and we will definitely lose the fight.
The dollar rate against our currency will continue to rise unless some drastic measures are quickly adopted. No economist can dare deceive us that things will change for better anytime in the foreseeable future.
- Market monopolization by foreign entities
Our current market situation is insurmountable in many ways.
One problem is that, we do not have comparative and consistent amounts of exports which may boost our foreign currency reserves and the other one is the monopolization of the market by foreign businessmen whose interests is as usual, is the maximization of profits.
For further analysis, i have observed that the proportions of goods and commodities in our markets are divided up into the categories as below; the Somalis control heavy trucks, construction and food industries; Eritreans control water and hotel industries, Ethiopians own hotel, water, drink and liquor industries, Ugandans opted for mechanics, electronics and construction industries, Kenyans and some West Africans took on the banking industry, the Sudanese control food, clothings and pharmaceutical industries and finally, our own South Sudanese taking aviation, hotel, housing and major petty businesses.
With such statistics, though not properly researched on, one can tell if our country can stand alone in case of immense crises or in an event when these foreigners decide to quit or manipulate issues on their favor. What would we do? Shall the country not collapse as events are likely unfolding this way? To end on this, we must be reminded that monopoly is a dangerous thing and a cause for the uncontrollable increase of prices in our markets.
- Huge government structure followed by lack of discipline to budget execution
Having the RTGoNU in place and as previously, we have got a huge government of a President and 5 Vice Presidents and about 40 national ministers, 500 plus MPs, ten states and county governments and lots of other independent government agencies and commissions that would all be catered for. Where will the money come from~oil or from other revenues?
Huge government structures amount to huge revenues for the purposes of management, operations and maintenance. Will the little income from the oil revenues cater for both the service delivery and upkeeps?
Of course no! Such issues are what create burdens to the economy, and we will always have nothing but capital outflows, while the market continues to suffer.
A country that intends to advance its economic growth opts for a lean government whose expenditures are controllable through proper budget discipline giving way for foreign currency management.
- Legal vacuum on the protection of patent and copyrights followed with the absence of the rule of law.
A perfect rule of law allows for the protection of businesses and the forces of market competition.
Once trade disputes are not quickly attended to, there is a likelihood of financial risks accruing from delays and bribery on cases related to financial matters. Investors need to be protected by law and at the same punished for wrongdoings.
Additionally, the absence of patent and copyrights laws, give way for theft and plagiarism on the hard-earned business ideas of innovative persons. We should acknowledge that some of our youth are productive when it comes to the creation of ideas, but lack of protection on the possible frauds on these ideas impedes the whole process.
Such laws must quickly be enacted so that opportunities for innovation are enhanced. When ideas are financed and protected from theft, there is always a room for economic growth brought about by competition and specialization.
Businesses and business ideas are not protected in South Sudan, and it presents one reason why many investors are scared to come here for investments.
Allowing impunity accelerated by powerful politicians and military generals also impedes the wanted economic takeoffs.
- Absence of land for investments
Land is a fixed asset which is tangible for investments. Its lack may retard the progress in business. Our laws too are not providing suitable grounds in regards to the ease of obtaining land for investment.
How do we expect the economy to grow, when processes of acquiring land are very difficult?
With land leased to companies, the owners would be able to build factories, facilities, shops, hotels and so forth leading to the economic growth.
- Low oil prices at the international markets
The decrease in the prices of our only export; the oil is a major reason for our economic downturn. Before the crises of 2013 and 2016, our country was pumping approximately 600,000 barrels per day (bpd) of the crude oil. But when the conflict started, things changed due to the shutdown of many active oil producing wells in Palouch, Unity and Tharjath oil fields.
The shutdown led to many consequences including the reduction in the daily crude oil output which equally reduced revenues hailing from it. Our central bank would only receive small amounts of cash which wouldn’t boost the reserves’ position, adding the problem of misuse and uncontrolled withdrawals of these cash by individuals for private use irrespective of service delivery.
A recent decision by the President to barter out our oil in exchange of tangible national projects like road construction is a good and an heeded idea, but its implementation mechanisms are full with ploy and sorrows as lack of constant supervision factor in. Such idea would have helped in many ways on service delivery but the problem of foreign currency absence due to the bartering system would also have some underlying challenges in a long run.
- Natural disasters and calamities
Unexpected natural disasters and calamities like corona virus and locust invasion block the economic forces of the market to flourish. They halt business activities for sometimes by creating risks of closure and temporary shutdowns.
Such problems cannot be blamed on the government but rather of the preparedness on unseen eventualities. They are, however short lived though with significant impacts on the economic performance and prosperity.
- Dependence on high interest loans with abnormal interest returns
Our fiscal authorities have been taking loans from the international speculators and creditors whose interests is quick profit maximization. If one secures loans, one must be reminded that two things standout; the fastest paybacks of these loans on high interest rates or depending on the agreement.
The other one is the efficient use and management of these loans that may support the market forces and service delivery. If the two are not fulfilled, then, there is an expectation of an economic disaster. Loans keep both the lender and debtor in constant position of negotiations for the repay. The debtor will never make a comfortable economic planning due to fear of consequences arising from such debts.
Poor economic planning in this respect results from huge debts exceeding the country’s annual income.
Loans once not paid by the present regime, create burdens to the economic prosperity of the future generations. These are the issues we are facing and waiting to face.
- Bad culture & ignorance mated with high illiteracy and poverty rates in the country
The backwardness we have been exposed to for centuries speak volume and it is the mean reason we cannot catch up with modernization. We have stuck to the traditional lifestyles which hold back our path to modernity.
Ignorance, poverty and high illiteracy rates are the results of our refusal to change our status quo. Continued keeping of our traditional lifestyle creates an environment which is incompatible to coping up with modern economic forces that bring welfare and progress.
Bad cultures are the reasons for our continued backwardness in the sense that most of our people in the villages still view education as a foreign entity, incomparable with theirs and therefore decide to go against it by keeping their children at home.
A progressive economy requires an educated workforce as a key prerequisite. Some South Sudanese communities more particularly the Nilotic view business and other manual jobs as the work of non-cattle keepers and have nothing to do with them.
It has been a long held attitude by them. Such attitudes encourage laziness and dependence on second parties for survival as the only means.
Attempts by politicians from Nilotic areas to finance their youths to become self reliance are in most cases turned down with many opting to be enrolled into the security sector. Valuing cattle more then owning cash or accumulating capital is seen as a useless activity. Most youths hailing from pastoralist backgrounds prefer buying cattle for pride, prestige and for marriage.
This is what i mean of bad cultures. Some of our cultures are indeed so good to be maintained while others deserve no applause.
Continued attachments to some of our values and norms by our youths encourage poverty, cattle rustling and equally increase low levels of enrollments into primary and secondary education.
- The problem of unemployment.
Without talented and educated youth offered opportunities for employment, our country will not expect instability and insecurity to stop. Youth are the major medium used by politicians to cause chaos and insecurity across the country.
Our contemporary insurgencies and rebellions are facilitated with an immense participation of youths. The wars of 2013 and 2016, cattle rustling and raids, child abductions and the ongoing insurgency advanced by negative forces are some of the reasons for lack of employment.
Without employment, there is no competitive market and lack of this amounts to poor economic performance. Lack of employment also reduces income generation by the government and with low revenues collected, service delivery would be a hoax.
So, one can now see and appreciate the fact that unemployment affects both the economy and service delivery.
- Lack of fiscal decentralization to the states
Our central government has not been decentralizing revenues to the states for development except for salaries and other costs. Fiscal decentralization is a new concept arguing for a 60% transfer of cash to the peripheries so that a balanced economy and development are equally achieved.
Transfer of revenues provide room for employment too and also reduces civil strifes in the states. Why concentrate cash in Juba? And why not create procedures and policies favouring the empowerment of states to be self-reliance in terms of revenue management? Why not decentralize revenue collections to the states if ours is a true federalism?
Decentralization as always spoken shouldn’t be a one sided phenomena, but a mechanism where both administrative powers and fiscal controls are devolved to the states.
The concept of taking towns to people can only be a reality if revenues are also decentralized. How do we take towns to the margins if there are no resources to build these towns?
My own opinion should be allow states to collect and take the responsibility of making periodic remittances to the central government in accordance with the agreed ratios as revenue position may very from a state to a state.
Finally, and relations to our topic, balanced economic development supported with income distribution across the country, one would say, there are possibilities for creating a welfare state whose citizens are proud of their per capita income.
What has the commission for fiscal and financial allocation mechanism been doing since its inception? Was it established for fun or for job creation? We need to be serious my people.
These are our economic challenges and any gap observed in regards to these views on the failure of our economy should be regarded as oversight from my side.
- Enhance and quicken the infrastructural development in all its sectors.
- Advance rule of law and create more economic laws to bridge the existing gaps.
- Adopt capitalist economic system with liberalization policies. It supports economic growth.
- Provide favourable investment climate supported with clear incentives.
- Enhance proper revenue collection policies, procedures and standards.
- Forge political means that would create permanent stability and peaceful livings.
- Removal of the system of economic obstacles; alas state protectionist policies.
- Improve the educational system that would provide innovative & qualified workforce.
- Introduce wise economic monetary and fiscal policies governing the economy.
- Fight corruption by removing resource mismanagement & encourage service delivery.
- Support domestic production capacity by creating many state owned parastatals.
- Stop taking more loans and encourage clear policy for periodic paybacks.
- Decentralize the revenues to the states for balanced developmental takoffs.
- Provide employment opportunities to the youth by promoting the private sector.
Let me say that, our supporting the country rests with such ideas, while the decision to reform and transform remain with policymakers. My questions are; is this article worth reading and beneficial and if so, what do we benefit from it? It is not a matter of ignoring it because it originates from someone one does not like or respects. But the content should be that which deserve applause or be dropped into the dustbin of history if these ideas are deemed useless.
With these comments, I beg to rest this case.
Note that the views presented here are my own and do not represent any institution, public or private. They should therefore be treated as for academic purposes and policy support.
Thank you very much for your time and attention reading and digesting it.
The author holds a master of arts in security and strategic studies from the University of Juba. He can be reachable via: firstname.lastname@example.org
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