Development Road-map Plan and Permanent Peace Formula in South Sudan

CHAPTER 1

Social Services

Introduction to Development Approach

In most parts of African countries, development approaches are dictated by donor countries. They tell the countries unless they do the programs they want them to do, they would not be funded. Does this make sense for us? Our people lived for years and years without schools, health services, etc. Therefore, all the above mentioned things are not the priority for Africa, especially for South Sudan.  The priority each African country should have needed was building roads to connect all the individual villages to the main roads. In case of South Sudan, unless we approach our development this way, cattle raiding, tribal wars, under development and many more will continue.

We need to take our towns to the villages and since we know our soil physics and chemistry, we would not expect someone to come and build our roads. I am sure if we did start right from the beginning with our roads, maybe we would have avoided many deaths. 

Indeed, I have no reservation in this document to say we don’t have to have foreign companies to come and loot us. We all have seen how much time and money have been wasted after the war. Our own sons and daughters took huge amount money in commission while in the office delivering nothing. Of course there are exceptions. Roads built by donor agencies US Aid. Like any nation we too need friends. Therefore, we would not refuse any offer from outside to build some of our roads. For example, if   USAID didn’t build Juba – Nimule road, probably there would have been nothing up to this time. We have failed to develop our roads with the money at our disposal. We have failed to start a needy project like cement production in Kapoeta which could have been a priority because cement is indispensable for our development.

In this paper, I would like to put down my ideas of building our roads in the entire country. We don’t have to ask for fish but to ask for someone to help us fish. In this view, the following steps would be what we start with:-

1- Road building in the entire country should be franchised. While the major roads belong to the Federal Government and the States, feeder roads should be done by the individual village authorities.

2- I expect the Federal, the State and the Friends of South Sudan to provide the villages with enough road construction equipment. Involving people to construct their own roads will make them be responsible to maintain them. In this way, experts from both within and outside will effectively be used. Above all there will be a lot of learning processes during this time. This will avoid our biggest enemy of people coming from outside with preconceived ideas about us and our needs. At one time NCA built schools and the buildings became toilets. Why? They were not the immediate needs of the people of the area. Second the people were facing other problems that needed more attention than going to school and many more. I know Aids attach strings but international bodies supporting us with manpower and equipment will minimize direct corruption if they gave us the money. The very sons and daughters of this country since 2005 made our money for road construction go into the drains.

1 Mapping up villages.

This is locating or knowing all the villages that exist in the country. It will then easily enable the authorities to plan any kind of services to be rendered. It will also enable notorious tribes or individuals to be controlled. Whatever services required for these people can easily be provided.

2Roads to connect all the villages to the main roads.

Building roads here should not mean temporary roads that would be washed away the next day. These roads will act as a recipe for all kinds of development such as Schools, Health Centers, Security organs and so on. There cannot be any meaningful development without roads.

3Center for Village Services:-

Having police posts all over centers will stop crimes, raiding etc. because they can get to the site of trouble early enough without delay. Starting development from the rural areas to the urban areas will have a long lasting positive effect for the nation. Indeed, what do you expect to grow in tarmac roads in the towns? This can be explained by the fact that corruptions, neglect of the villages have resulted since the signing of the CPA in 2005.Year after year we have remained hostages beggars to the government. 

Unless rural infrastructures are developed, hunger, raids, road bandits, tribal conflicts diseases and so on will not stop at all. As a government if you develop the people first obviously you will have a lot available money to use later. We all know huge amounts of money in African countries are not use for development but  to be pocketed by individuals.

A good system is difficult to create but may be easy to maintain. Without a good system individuals become billionaires at the expense of the common man and land infrastructure.

1- Post office

With good roads in place, communication becomes easy. Letters and parcels will reach every village within the time frame. At the absence of Banks, post offices will serve people in remote areas. It will enable them to learn how to save for future use.

2- Clinic

As mentioned earlier, all forms of services will have to be included in the centers. Having clinics in the centers will be a walking distance for everyone. Clinics will therefore be not only for treatment of common diseases but to control our high mortality rates of mother and child, teaching the people simple hygiene. We all should know that if we eat good food and drink clean water, we may not go to the clinic for months.

3- Schools

Our children don’t need to go long distances in search of schools. Centers can take care of this. The number of schools in each center will depend on the population of children. In addition to schools, community center will be needed and also serve as a learning facility for those elderly who didn’t have the chance to go to school.

4- Community Centers

This to me is probably the first and the most important elements of the centers. We need to help both the middle age and elderly among our society who have been deprived of reading and writing. We do have enough volunteers for this program. Senior Secondary Students both on holidays or those who have completed. Once we get these people able to read and write, it will enable them to make use of local newspapers and thus improve their quality of life.

CHAPTER 2

Agricultural Centers for:-

1- Silo [store]

At least a silo in agriculture active areas should be built not only to encourage production but to handle produce before they may be sold. Silos will act as Food Bank too for use when in need.

2- Pool Tractors

The concept of pool tractors will have a lot to offer for our people where our people are poor to have their own to improve agriculture. Any donation of a tractor or tractors will be the property of the community. There will be centers created in villages depending on the population. The tractors will be used on first come first serve bases. When a farmer applies, the agriculture extension worker will ask the individuals to clear their land and then are assessed. When everything is ready, a tractor driver will be sent to plow the land. I believe this will be effective, efficient and economic use of the tractors.

In the tractor pool there should be at least two drivers per a tractor who will work in shifts. Only one   mechanic per center may be needed but can be shared by other centers if need be. 

3- Cooperative Centers.

Owing to the financial status of our people, educational level and mistrust from corruption, we shall have a different approach of cooperative system in my view. Special form and rules to follow will be designed in future. I planned to explain how this should work in a workshop.

4-Cattle Raiding and some Reasons Involved.

Both in the past and at present, there are three possible reasons for raiding are: Prestige, to show manhood [traditional stage from youth to adulthood] and to pay bride-price. To give light into all these reasons, I will explain them all. I will also explain raiding in the past in relation to the present.

In the past when boys reached the age ready to have a home of their own, they mobilize boys of their age in the village and they go to raid cattle that would be paid for a lady of their choice. Those days, people go for the animals only but not to kill individuals. Yes guns were used but shots were shot in the air just to set the animals run out of the camps and in different directions. Those whose animals are raided reciprocate when they are ready too. This was the vicious cycle with cattle owners. Today, cattle raiding are about hate and killing. It involves use of sophisticated arms. Even if no animal is taken, there is always loss of lives. Raiders don’t care for lives any more. They shoot to kill.

Who are these raiders? The main groups of these are:-

1 The Toposa, the Turkana, the Karamojong and the Dodo. The group has similarity in their language and they do understand each other. They have the same way of life too. The Didinga and the Boya on the other hand are not good raiders though a few of them have animals.

2- The Dinkas are one of the Nilotic groups heavily involved in cattle raiding throughout generations. It has become worst of late because the elite in the towns encourage the villagers to fulfill their programs. This is why there is always fighting among and within clans of Dinkas. When some of these clans are told the whole of South Sudan belongs to them, they move to peaceful areas exporting with them their fighting attitude among and between themselves and other tribes. In a normal circumstances, a Dinka fights only over animals but today because they are told that they are the masters of every tribe in the South Sudan by those evil minded Jieng politicians, they think they ow the land  with everything in it including the people. Unless this mentality is reversed, there will be no South Sudan. The Dinka and anybody should understand that a nation is not about grasping what someone has. Why can’t we fight the common enemy in the Northern or the so called the Arabs who enslaved and took us as slaves for decades?

3-Murle-are like the Masai of Kenya found in South Sudan. They are good runners. Though some of them do have animals, they are not people very much engaged in raiding. The Shiluk, one of the Nilotic tribes do love peace too and like the Murle don’t raid a lot.

Some Solutions

If livestock particularly cattle continued to be the source of death of our people through raiding, I would suggest one of the below solutions:-

1- Until our people know and understand the values of keeping livestock instead of having them for Prestige resulting to fighting for them, we will have to get rid of them.

2- Encourage individuals who want to have cattle, to have only two of them and these must be improved [cross-bred] for their milk production. The centers will then help in services such as:-

-Dipping

-Vaccination

-Breeding

-Sales

-Treatment 

-Use of hides and skins etc.

All the above will require continuous training or workshops conducted in respective centers.

 4- Building Dams along the road or between villages few kilometers apart 

When I was younger, I often heard Nomadic farmers for years and year fought over water points and grazing land. This has also encouraged raids among the communities involved. During my studies in agriculture, the lecturers and tours I had, conformed this. With all this in mind, I have broad ideas to break some of the unhealthy practices. 

Building dams that will be filled by gravity will provide not only water points but improve the vegetation around these dams. It may not stop livestock raiding immediately but as the people know the value of rearing animals, they will keep the size they can manage profitably. However, more information about this will be explained in workshops.

CHAPTER 3

RECIPE FOR WARS AND IMPEDIMENT TO DEVELOPMENT

1Government System.

A no system or in adequate and poor implementation of the constitution drawn for the interests of the ruling body would not constitute development of a nation but individuals.  Elections in this kind of system are a fuss because they do not reflect the voices of the people or the majority. They are often manipulated. The Electoral body or the committees are appointed by the government to work for their interest. Elections therefore are used as a rubber stamp for getting or attracting aids in later days. In reality, elections are just a plebiscite. This means, it does not matter whether your vote is a yes or no or you don’t vote at all. It would not change the decision made before the so called planned election.

The unfortunate thing about elected people or governments in Africa is that, the public become answerable to the very government they elected instead of the opposite. The moment they take offices, they forget that they are employees of the people who elected them. The police, the army and the organized forces in the country forget that the guns they use to kill innocent or civilians with are bought by the people. Their salaries or wages too are paid by the people.

The systems in Africa make both human and natural resources go into the drains. Wars stop exploration of resources while both skilled and unskilled human force is forced to flee their countries which make loss of money spent in training. The systems are geared towards making individuals already in the government to remain permanent making money. They have the privileges of free houses; flee of cars and so on. Most of them do not have their minds focus on development. While countries loose human resources to exile, infrastructure development suffers. Not only the established ones are destroyed in wars but no new ones have a chance to be established. At this time, those in the government put their hands deep into public funds and transfer huge amounts of this money  into foreign banks These people do not only destroy money, but also lives of individuals whom they think stand on their way. Once in the government, forever in the government until death set them apart. Above all, some governments become family business. Qualification and merits don’t count. If you complain, you are calling to go several feet down before your actual time.

2- Inequality in the country.

It is sometimes difficult to think you are born and raised in your motherland. Your education has no meaning. You are treated not different from what you experienced from most African countries while in exile. No closed relative in the government means no job. The government directs services away from other areas. Any slight misunderstanding with anyone in government makes it worst for your area. The tribe where the Leader is among them, tend to own the government and therefore

3– Corruptions

There are various types of corruption that exist all-over the world but the most common one is financial

In Africa or third world countries, individuals continue to make their former colonialists richer and richer by pumping money from their countries to them. In fact if the money in question were to be used in Africa, there would have been significant development achieved. This is the reason having a position in the government appears to be a fortune to some but not to build a country. Three months in the government in a position of control is enough to make millions. Unlike in the western world, the individuals are not punished even if there is a clear evidence of misappropriation of funds. In a situation where heads of the governments are too involved, it becomes like “a thief can’t catch another thief”.

Other forms of corruptions are nepotism, bribes and many more. Even if one is blind, he/she would be able to hear the cry of these wounded people in a country. Anywhere you need a rubber stamp, signatures; you would be faced with obstacles all along. In some road blocks some individual offices are open or bold to ask you to pay for the services they are to give you. Some use words such as, drink, hand wash or for the road. Others will say “let us talk”. In Kenya, after handing your passport or document, they would say “kitu kidogo or support your document”. If you proved to be resistant, some will decide to blackmail you. They will ask your name. After telling them your name, they will say, “Your name is in the list”. When you ask what it meant, the answer will be, list of terrorist. Do something before I pass it to someone.

Bribe is the most command form of corruption used in most parts of Africa. This kind of corruption doesn’t only slow down effective use of time but retards development. Time maybe wasted in negotiations. The greedy individuals in the position may even demand the amount to be paid before they may act regardless whether your pocket can provide. Corruption of this kind makes the poor suffer most because they are often unable to pay for the services they are to receive. It is worst in the Airport of course if practiced by the immigration officers.

4- ORGANIZED FORCES

1National Forces.

To have a permanent National Army and all the organized forces, some of the following should first be considered: 

1- Neutrality of the army [they should have nothing to do with politics].  Any ambitious army personnel in politics should be set free to go and join the political party of his/her choice. The National Army shouldn’t fall into any party or should have party affiliated name. 

2- It will be important to know the background of anybody before recruitment into the forces. 

3- Anyone joining the army should have completed at least primary school education at the start and later, senior school. This condition should apply to other forces too particularly the police and wildlife. 

4-The army should be highly professional, well trained, well equipped and small size. This therefore needs people with good education for every discipline and any research activities.

5- Age limits.[ At recruitment and retirement] However, retired individuals with indispensable experiences and profession should continue to be used as national assets.

The formula below needs to be applied for employing the regular army and all our organized forces.

This formula will be based on our three former Regions [Upper Nile, Bahr El Ghazal and Equatoria], 3% of the total army should come from each region.

For example, if the Federal Government needs x total number of the army, each Region then will have; 

This formula should apply in the recruitment of other organized forces such as Police, Prison, Wildlife Custom Officers and others. There should be no domination of Custom Officers by one tribe particularly those who don’t come from the area. It should be noted that as a source employment, I expect all the supporting staff to come from the area. Customs should not be taken as an area to collect money only but should have well in fractures too.

2- NATIONA SERVICES

a] There should be a mandatory military service. Suggested age and duration should be 18 and 2 years respectively.

b] Volunteers into the army. This could be determined by the situation at the time. For example, if the country is under attack.

3– Recruitment and the roll of the police and prison officers.

To give peace a chance, in all tribal areas, the police and the prison officers must come from the sons and daughters of the soil. This will not only cement relations from mistrust experienced but to build an understanding between those forces and the values for each other. This will not only enable each other to share knowledge on security issues but to coordinate peace and harmony in the area.

4– The Location and the Roll of the Military at the time of Peace.

1– Location

Having witnessed wars for many years, to see anybody moving with guns in the town become a very sensitive issue. One can assume anyone with a gun can engage his gun anytime even if he/she knows the rules. At the same time, a military barracks or post situated in civilian residential area can be hazardous. Ammunition, chemical and any explosive materials kept in the site may incidentally explode and if it does, lots of lives will be lost. In this view, as we are still lucky that our land has plenty of room for proper planning our infrastructure, we should do it right now before it is too late.

2– The Roll of the Military at the time of Peace.

The military can be a great work force for the nation at the time of peace especially if there is expertise. The following are a few areas that could accelerate the development of the country:-

– Research in every field in the military.

– Build community roads and bridges

– Engage in food production

– Get to school to improve education level or achieve professions.

– Assist in emergencies and other public activities

5- Inequality in the country.

Inequality in any country in the world is the source of discontent with governments, revolt and wars. If Governments become drunk of their powers at the expense of their people, the society is bound to react especially when people complain, they go for them. Once disappearances of individuals start in a country, that country will go back to where it started. 

Sharing the national cake has been seen to be the biggest source of problem by most governments. Why would someone want to have more than he /she needed when he or she doesn’t know how much time is left to live? Why do people take a huge sum of money out of the country instead of having to develop their own country?

One of the permanent scars of trouble in a country is, the use of power either as individual or Government to robe people of their land. It is therefore important whichever government in power should ensure no one bridges this understanding. Of course, towns belong to everyone as long as the land in question is obtained through legal way.

6 Revenue and its use in the country

I remember according to CPA, 15 percent of the money obtained in the areas where oil was pumped, was to go to the development of the area. I am not sure if this was implemented. If it was, then by now we should expect Unity State, Upper Nile and Jonglei State to be more developed than any other parts in South Sudan. 

However, I don’t want to remember the pains most of us have gone through but to offer some kind of solution which I think may solve part of the puzzles. It will be known as “Formula for the use of any Revenue with Federal and all the states in the country.” This formula may not be apply exactly as it is but will give a clue that we need for the use of our resources to prevent discontent of our entire society. Unless some of us want to continue siphoning our resources, I would not expect opposing to the idea but to build on it.

Should we adapt Federal System, the Federal, States and the areas where  the resources are obtained will have the following percentages respectively; 55%, 30% and 15%.{Federal, State and area of resource} In addition there should be  10% charge on any goods and services should be adopted in the country. The Federal will have 6% of this and the State 4%.as their revenue.

We should also keep in mind that the following are also recipes for wars and implement to Development:

6- Killing of opponents

7- Tribalism

8- Indefinite ruling

9- Elections as a fuss

10- Zeno phobia

11- Jealousy

12- Witchcraft and poisoning etc.

13- Displacement of people from their ancestral land or forceful land settlement.

7- National Voluntary Work Association [NVWA].

Introduction

This association will probably become one of the most important single institution that can rapidly unit our people from north to south and east to west of the country. At this stage, I would not be able to explain everything but to touch on issues of concern in this document.

It is an organization where there is no status. Everybody living in the country will be allowed to participate where each activity is held. However, there will be official membership. If you want to get your hand dirty, then this is the place for you to give a difference.

The project is expected to be run by the youth. Offices or Centers will be located in every town and Village Centers. Although much of the activities will be village based, some community activities may be carried in the towns. Each center will identify the activities needed by the community in question and prioritize them. The neediest will be done first. For example, it could be footbridge, a school road etc. Once preparations are completed, verified and approved the officer concerned will have to see that materials needed are gathered before volunteers are informed to come to the site.

Details and everything about this project will be explained in a series of workshops to help understand the concept. Volunteer work does exist in many countries but this will be different in many ways. If supported by everybody, it will yield unforgettable results in our individual states and the country.

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