South Sudan, a Dinka Nation in Making

By Mr. Moluk Kometkana Bsc. Msc,

Opinion.

June 20th, 2018(Nyamilepedia) —- Why the Republic of South Sudan which seceded from the Sudan in 2011 is in turmoil? These paper looks briefly at how South Sudan is being transformed into Dinka Nation at the expense of the other tribes. It briefly and critically summarises the evolution of the Dinka Hegemony and how it has driven the country into the current crisis, the consequences and what looks to be the Permanent solution to address it. Do not be offended by the fact that this piece appears to generalise the Dinka people, I am quite aware that not all the Dinka people share the same evil plans the Jeing Council has.  The paper is written in a plain English for the benefit of all audience.

“that now we have liberated South Sudan from the Arab oppressor. But I want to inform you that an oppressor has no colour and not necessarily an outsider. Your own brother with same colour can become your oppressor. So let us not allow some people in the independent South Sudan to become oppressors, because any such internal oppression will be met with resistance and South Sudan will be plunged into a tribal war, and tribal wars are worse than conventional wars because the former does not follow the international norms, as it did happen in Ruanda” Dr. John Garang, 2004

Brief synopsis of past and present attempts to establish Dinka Hegemony over South Sudan and which has finally put the country into the current crisis

  1)  Hegemonic attempts during the Anyanya Movement 1955 -1972

 The current conflict in South Sudan can be traced back to the time of the first civil war in the Sudan which started in the greater Equatoria region in the fifties. It was basically the issue of leadership of the movement, in the first anyanya movement was let by an Equatorian and our brothers especially those from Bahar el Ghazal refuse the leadership of general Tapeng and wanted the leadership to come from them, which let to the killing of Michael Loruwe by Andrew makur in Equatoria. This incident brought crisis in which fighting took place among the Anyaya until the coming of Joseph Lagu who finally united them, although they were not satisfied. Many of them left the movement on the grounds that the leader was not from them.

      2) Hegemonic attempts during the Former Regional Executive Council 1972-1983

In 1972, by the Addis Ababa agreement, the three provinces of Southern Sudan were merged to form an autonomous  Regional Government in Juba known as “The Regional Executive Council which was to exercise Executive powers with an independent public services Commission within the united Sudan; however after 10 years of functioning it was abrogated  by president Nimeiri in a presidential decree no 1 of June 1983, making the three regions each independent and responsible to Khartoum for two reasons:-Northern interest and Ethnic rivalry.

      When the Addis Ababa agreement was signed, some northern political parties were very un happy of the decision taken by Jaafar Mohammed Nimeri as political solution for solving the Southern problem, it was deemed that South will grow politically and united as result the north worked using different tactics to dismantle the agreement. Although the Arab North had a plan to abrogate the Addis Ababa agreement, South Sudanese to a large extent contributed for the destruction of the former Regional Executive Council in Juba mainly due to ethnic rivalry. When the regional government was founded in 1972, Dinka automatically assumed power in Juba when Abel Alier was appointed the president of the high Executive Council for Southern Region of the Sudan. Immediately he planted roots of all the current conflicts and hatred in South Sudan by promoting Dinka hegemony, political, and economic domination and corruption in South Sudan. Policy of Dinkanization was developed and an organization know as Dinka Unity was born specifically to maintain power in Juba.

Dinka dance-Kabulo-Rumbek,Southern Sudan,Africa( Photo: Africarlo0)

Dinka dance-Kabulo-Rumbek,Southern Sudan,Africa( Photo: Africarlo0)

     Dinka were made to dominate all affairs, institutions, and sectors of the regional government.  For example, during his second term of office in 1980, half of Alier’s cabinet was occupied by the Dinka politicians.  In the Civil services key leadership positions were dominated by Dinka as well as the organized services, and this was proven by production of   pamphlets which presented tables with the under representation of some particular ethnic groups in the cabinet or bureaucracies of the regional government. The most widely known was written by Joseph Lagu entitled Decentralization: a necessity for the Southern Provinces of the Sudan, which presented lists of Dinkas and non Dinkas in various government positions, and where Equatorians and other tribes in the South were excluded from power by the numerically large Nilotic Dinka and Nuer

     To make the matter worse, Ruben Mach from Bor, who was not senior officer in the regional Police Services by passed those ahead of him and was appointed the Regional Commissioner of Police for Southern Sudan, who became increasingly ethnic and was responsible for all the injustice in the police services in South Sudan. Police recruitment for example was determined by a rope tied about 7 feet high and any body who is taller than that will be recruited, any one below that was disqualified. This was purposely done to exclude many people from non pastoralist tribes who are much shorter than the Nilotic Dinka.  Pastoralist were invited from Bor and other places and there was a heavy movement of large herds of cattle which destroyed large plantations of crops in the Equatoria region. These movements were rampant with the pastoralist behaving in an arrogant and brute manner given the fact that Ruben Mach was there to protect them. When crop owners complain they are beaten with impunity and at times they are lock in despite the fact that they are the complaints.

     When late Hilary Paul Logali was nominated for the presidency of the High Executive Council for the Southern Region, his nomination was rejected on the bases of not being a Dinka. When Joseph Lagu supported by Nimeiri took over power from Abel Alier, as the president of the High Executive Council in February 1978, the South was put in turmoil. Schools were instigated to fight and student were involved in tribal fights in the main schools around Southern Sudan in which students from Equatoria were killed for example in Rumbek and at Commercial secondary school in Juba, and those who did that were not arrested. It was an instigated unrest so that Lagu administration was seen as a failure and indeed most schools were closed. Lagu was removed and replaced by Peter Goutkuoth Guol who did not even last long and Abel Alier was brought back for the second time.

     Those tribally induced policies and behaviours caused internal divisions along ethnicities which let to a bitter struggle among South Sudanese to redivide the South into the three regions as they were before the agreement, with each having equivalent political powers  to that of the regional Executive Council ostensibly to share in the eating of the national cake, and this was termed Kokora declared in 1983. It is to be concluded therefore that Kokora movement which marked the collapse of the High Executive Council was motivated by ethnic and tribal domination of the Regional Government under Abel Alier in the 1970 and 1980s and also marked the beginning of hatred among South Sudanese.

Hegemonic attempts taking place currently in the independent South Sudan

During the war of liberation and believing that they were the majority, the Dinka thought they could remove the Arab regime without  the other nationalities, so that they take over power in Juba, and establish its self the superior tribe in South Sudan. However, this did not succeed for they could not defeat the Arabs without the other tribes who later joined the war of liberation and were to be found in the frontline everywhere until the conclusion of the war. However, those who attempted to join the movement in its earlier days were subjected to very drastic measures.  They were badly brutalized and mistreated with many of them lost their lives in the hands of some Dinka commanders. For example, John Mujufuri from the Azande tribe and a graduate from the university of Juba, who attempted to join the movement was brutally killed by Justin Yak along side many other Equatrians who were locked in a container, simply because they come from people who supported Kokora policy. Not only that, but those Dinka soldiers who roamed the area in the eighties, looted, raped women and committed many inhuman deeds against the people of Equatoria. The classic example was when the SPLA soldiers commanded by a Dinka from Bor went on rampage to brutalize people in Terkeka district. That incident and many more others in different parts of Equatoria were simply erased from the minds of Equatorias because people embraced Godly principles of life, and  thinking that peace has come and the past should be forgotten.

     After the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement and establishment of the Autonomous Southern Sudan in 2005, followed by Salva Kiir taking over power in Juba, Equatorians and other ethnic groups begin to hear offensive words from Jeing intellectuals, those in key government positions and students. words such as

  • We are the ones who liberated the country
  • We are the majority and have the right to rule
  • You thought you have chased us for ever, but here we are back
  • Many of our people were killed in the war so we deserve the right to rule
  • Since we have liberated the country we have an obligation to organize and set things right as Museveni is doing in Uganda. We must rule it for the next 200 years
  • Who will think can challenge us since the SPLM is our party

      These words and many others which are likely to incite conflicts were common in the street of Juba and other parts of South Sudan. They even went as far as denying the participation of the other tribes in the liberation war, and these was evidenced in several mateyer days in Juba, where the names of the other tribes are not mentioned including the Juba massacre of 1992, where many people specially Equatorians lost their lives. It was also emphasized by the minister of defence Koul Manyang when addressing a military parade in the army headquarter Bilpam.

     In this respect, it can be concluded that Dinka ethnicity and politicians think of the South Sudan as Dinka property handed over to them by the Arabs Colonial Masters during the independence in July, 2011, and it is their duty to keep and protect it by being its permanent leaders similar to what the Mahadi’s family thought about the Sudan being its family property. In reality since 2005 the South Sudanese state represented and has been serving the economic, social and cultural interest of the Dinka ethnicity and have continued to treat the SPLM party as a family organization to be run according to their aspirations/and or designs, and this is what had created a very big rift and serious tensions in the SPLM party between the Dinka leadership and other non Dinka politicians. It became a believe in Juba specially among the common people when a person speak/ or hear of SPLM, GOSS, they will, without hesitation think that you are talking about the Dinka and to an extent the Nuer ethnicities who have actually dominated the state affairs in Juba since independence at the expense of the other tribes.

     To implement these ill plans against other tribes, aggressive and dangerous policies have to be pursued by the government on behalf of the Jeing people from the beginning of their rule in Juba. This include among others taking control of the Government, the Army, the Security sector and the Economy, supress the Nuer and to chase out Equatorians from South Sudan who are perceived as cowards and Ugandans.

      Kiir began to institute authoritarian and tyrannical regime leadership, instituted poor governance, corruption, insecurity, the absence of democracy and rule of law among others purposely to serve Dinka interest. In 2015, the Jeing Council of elders was formally formed as an advisory body, and to devise policies on how to promote the Dinka rule in South Sudan as per Dinka ethnicity and culture. These polices were formalized in what came out to be known as the Dinka Development/ Master plan as a road map for achieving those objectives (refer to the dinka development plan 2015). Accordingly, some of the Jeing ethnic policies in the master plan to be implemented on behalf of the Jeing community by the government included but are not limited to: –  

Domination of Government Institutions

Here the policy option is that all sovereign institution of the state is to be run by Dinka and this has been explicitly stated in their master plan. all foreign services institutions and diplomatic missions both inside and outside must be control to show that all the people in the country are Dinka and they are the most fit for these privilege positions. currently in South Sudan 80 % percent of the ambassadors are Dinka and out of this about 60% incompetent bringing shame or the bad name to South Sudan.  Most of the senior positions in all ministries are occupied by Dinka the same thing which happened during Abel Alier regime in Juba from 1972- 1982. All organized forces (police, prisons, wildlife and fire brigade) at the national level and 90% of all the states are commanded and dominated by the Dinka as originally planned. To prove this, go to your state and see the organization of the forces and you will find that 80 to 90% of the forces are Dinka. The Inspector General of the Police has been a Dinka since the beginning of the Autonomous government in South Sudan.  

National Security and other security organization Policy

Here National security is to be purely the Jeing people, and this is the worst institution in terms of domination on both internal and external security services in the eyes of the South Sudanese people. Almost 90% are purely Dinka; they are deployed everywhere and are the most arrogant and brute individuals responsible for most night crimes and other crimes in Juba and other urban cities. They are guided by the worst security act ever found anywhere on earth, not even approved by the parliament but was signed by the president into law to fulfil this particular ethnic interest. This organization is responsible for arrests, detention, torture, killings, eliminations, kidnapping, disappearance, and intimidation of the other tribes of Southern Sudan. This was confirmed by the former Chief of general staff Paul Malong Awan when he said “the unknown gun men are the national security of Akol Koor.”   Any tribe that has any one or two of its people rebel or join the Riak movement is a target of this organization. It is this institution that the government is resisting a change during peace negotiations in Addis Ababa and truly a monopoly of the Dinka.

The Military Policy

The policy here is that, the Jeing must dominate the army, deployed everywhere in Equatoria and other parts of South Sudan to protect them from any act by other tribes. Before the war broke out in Juba in 2013, the Nuer were said to have constituted 60% of the National army, however after the war, that percentage dropped dramatically and the Dinka took it as an opportunity to fill the gap by embarking on tribal recruitment including the forces of the Mathiang Anyor and other groups. Now the Jeing constitutes the majority in the army leave alone the tribally organized militia. The most disturbing aspect of this tribal army is the unprofessional nature of it. Probably South Sudan is the only country in the world with very many unqualified army generals and this is a policy design to empower the Jeing and to dominate the silent tribes in the South Sudan. Over sixty percent (60 %) of the army generals are, Jeing with most of them uneducated and unfit for those military positions. Most of the soldiers are untrained, but are recruited for the sake of corruption.

     The military is supported by the matiang Anyor militia who are responsible for the destruction of villages and looting of properties in Equatoria, Nuer and Shilluk lands and in other areas of the South.  The newly tribal army is very much oriented in a tribal way as the mathiang Anyor, and are responsible for looting, raping and many other evil acts at the aftermath of the 2016 incident in Juba. Those few Equatorians and other non Dinka tribes who survived the liberation war are deployed in upper Nile and Bahar El-Ghazal outside their territory since the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement in 2005. They are not allowed to come back home even to visit families as result may of them ended up killing themselves or are eliminated purposely while Dinka men and officers are deployed in Equatoria which is their hunting ground for resources, and better life and to carry out atrocities against the people of Equatoria, the Nuer and other tribes.

Institutionalised corruption for the first initial period in power  

The policy of corruption is one of the instrument for a very quick economic empowerment of the Jeing people. Without the economic power the Jeing will not maintain political power in South Sudan.  All South Sudanese people have known that billions of US dollars received from donations, grants, oil proceeds, and taxtation have gone to the hands of individuals with impunity. Those who tried to fight it, hit walls because they were crossing the red line. So corruption in South Sudan is not by coincidence, but a policy design to address a particular need of the Jeing communities. These were words of president Kiir, in an address to the commissioners of South Sudan Anti- Corruption Commission during their swearing in ceremony in July 2006 in Juba, in which he directed the commissioners and I quoted “don’t leave any stone unturned, but be careful, some stones are too heavy that they can fall on you and crush you” he concluded. So corruption is part of Jeing Cultural Policy characterised by cruelty, grabbing, plundering looting, robbing and stealing, and this is the culture stated in the master plan which ought to be adopted by our nation. I once asked a Dinka friend, why do you grab people’s lands, and the answer he gave was “We are told that in Equatoria, we must use force to take anything we want”, so it is a designed policy.  

Control of the South Sudan Economy and the Economic institutions

This ethic policy is that the Jeing must control 90% of any economic institution in South Sudan as means to bog down other tribes. Currently all financial institutions- The central bank, commercial banks, all revenue generating institution – all petroleum companies Nile pet, Customs, immigration, and any organization generating money or provide means to generate money are 90 % ran by the one ethnic group. Economic empowerment of individuals not in government or other organizations is done through direct financial transfers to fake companies, award of contracts to these fake family companies, and many others at the expense of other tribes. Atian the minister of finance during the Dura scandal declared that he was doing it in consultation with the president to empower his people economically. Millions of dollars went to individual hands without providing the services in which that money was meant for.

Displacement and Control of Boarders policy

This policy option is implemented through formation of special militia army popularly known as Matiang Anyor, and others whose missions are to ensure displacement of non Jeing people from their ancestral land in Equatoria, Upper Nile, and Western Bahar el Ghazal and to invite pastoralist and others to settle in these lands with their cattle once the owners are displaced. Displacement is implemented by burning villages, raping women, killing of innocent civilians, looting of their properties and breaking down permanent buildings and any other acts meant to implement this policy. Currently these abandon lands are roamed by pastoralist who claimed that they were invited to come on the grounds that these places have been liberated.  This has so far happened in different parts of the Equatorial region where the inhabitants have been forced to go to the refugee camps in the neighbouring countries. Those who travelled through the Nimule road might have seen the implementation of this policy in the the madi Land.

     Parallel to the displacement policy is the control of the border points policy. That all border points mainly in the Equatoria should be controlled and inhabited by the Jeing people. They must also give names to these newly founded settlements. This is where you find names like new Bor, New Kush, Jebel Dinka and many other names in the East part of the Equatorial region.  This is done for strategic control reasons to monitor and control the Southern borders from activities of suspected Equatorians and to control border trade. For those of you who passed through Nimule, Kaya and Nadafal have witness this designs. If you arrive in Nimule, can you believe that Nimule is part of Madi Land? Thousands and thousands of Jeing people live around these border points more than the indigenous people of these lands. They grab lands by force, threaten and mistreat the indigenous people so as to leave these places for their permanent settlements.

Land Grabbing Policy:

Unlike displacement policy, land grabbing is implemented in the towns, either from registered owners or from the communities which own that land. For example, people’s plots have been grab in several areas in Juba including Komiru by Riak Machar, Tonping, munuki and other important areas. Koul Manyang and Paul Malong used government machinery to settle their people in Juba. Tanks and artilleries were deployed around areas to be grab from the Bari communities and to displace the inhabitants in favour of specific ethnic groups. While for example those Equatorials who bought lands in places for example in Rumbek were lured to build those places and once they were developed other people appeared claiming land ownership and are often taken by force without any government interference or compensation.

Ethnic Cleansing policy

This policy was in the first targeting the Nuer ethnicity and afterwards extended to other tribes who have stood up against genocide. Innocent Nuer women, children, elder people, students, government officials and other classes of the Nuer were massacred in a policy of ethnic elimination. Specifically, one can suggest that the Nuer massacred was because

done

  • Nuer are deem dangerous to the political and future policies of dinkanization, as such to destroy them at the earlier time possible
  • That Nuer may grab power so must be discouraging from leadership aspirations
  • Revenge for 1991 incident in Bor and Kongor or for other atoricities during the liberation war by the Nuer
  • Eliminate future potential Nuer who may want to aspire for political leadership
  • Nuer is the only terrible rival to power in Juba and the only tribe capable of challenging the Dinka Hegemony, and Dinkanization of the South
  • Eliminate educated Nuer and reduce them to a manageable size
  • As warning to other tribes of South Sudan not to dream for power

    Education Policy

Education is to be intensified for the Dinka people as they claim they were disadvantaged during the colonial administration. The government was tasked with the responsibility of sending students abroad to attend secondary and university education and to be sponsored by the government. They have succeeded in sending Dinka students to many countries on government sponsorship including Uganda, Kenya, South Africa and other countries. They have also monopolized scholarship offered by the countries having petroleum companies in South Sudan.  Classic example is those students who have to returned from Zimbabwe due to lack of funds by the government, and students returning from South Africa after studying military piloting of which 90 % were all Dinka. All scholarships offered by foreign governments are to be reserved for Dinka and the Nuer through the efforts of Riak Machar

Cultural and Social Policy

The Jeing community has aspirations to culturally Dinkanize the whole South Sudan as per their Mater plan. The cultural policy therefore takes into consideration control of many elements including imposition of Dinka dialect.  Because they are the majority in offices, Dinka dialect is predominantly common in the public offices, meetings and other occasions even if they are non Dinkas in attendance. Visit those oil companies, immigration, Nationality, the organized forces and the ministries you will justify for your self. When the people of Central Equatoria State  drafted their constitution, they included the definition of which communities constitutes the Central Equotoria state, and also included the use of Bari in their parliament, when it was sent for review by the ministry of constitutional affairs, these two sections were scrapped as irrelevant where as in their states they are allowed to do so for this may stop them to identify themselves as Equatorians

Dinka continue telling the outside world that everybody is a Dinka and they are to be found everywhere: – Dinka Yei, Dinka Tonping, Dinka Nimule, Dinka Yambio, e.t.c so as to justify their domination. There are very many strategies to be used in this respect, and are many to be presented here, I prefer to present it in another piece plus the Judiciary.

       In general, what is happening in the country is not by accident, but by design in a series of activities planned to take control of the people of South Sudan, and to be achieved through violent and brute behaviour characterised by looting, killing, plundering and destroying the country in the eyes of the people, so that people are scared, run to other countries or remain silent, and not to dream about leadership. The evidence to prove this is the Dinka development plan as an instrument of domination and a road map to achieve those goals. The silence of the Dinka communities inside and internationally over the atrocities committed by their fellow Dinka: – the mathiang Anyor ethnic militia, the ethnic army, and the security personnel against the other tribes without their condemnation is a clear indication that the Dinka are united behind these policies.

     The Dinka people have refused to look at their past to learn from their worst acts committed against the people of South Sudan with the believe that the machinery of the government is in their hands, no one or nothing will happen or challenge their regime in Juba. They refuse to learn from the former regional government experience, but instead making it worse than it was, therefore it must be remembered that South Sudan is Dinka nation in making.  

     Although the Nuer have not contributed very much to the current crisis in our country, apart from land grabbing, one thing is evident and I may want to bring it to the attention of all Non Dinka and Nuer people about their perception of the political future of South Sudan. The Nuer being the second largest tribe after the Dinka believes that the leadership of the country is only to alternate between them and the Dinka, and this is a mind set of some Nuer people. This can be justified by the words of professor De Chang who clearly wrote in several occasion, one of which can be quoted here: –

… Compared to Dr. Lam Akol or Lt. General Thomas C. Swaka that have been sponsored and mentored by Kenya and Uganda to be vying for South Sudan leadership. Do they have the capacity, the ability, and support or backing of the majority tribe to lead the people? Dr. Lam, blind political ambition working for years uniting Luo speaking group against the Nuer – Dinka majority and demographic majoritarianism.  If any of the two is super imposed externally, it could escalate the war rather than de-escalating it in South Sudan. Our warning to the Nuer- Dinka majority could be that let us reconcile our differences that have been minors compared to many common things that we share and united us as people committed to the united common front in spite of our political difference on the struggle for power sharing and the presidency, money and control. We the Nuer – Dinka folks should rekon that we have real enemies from within South Sudan that have been prepared and plotted to devoir us as people by assuming leadership through external support and external superimposition…

…We fought so hard for South Sudan political independence and we could not allow the establishment of mobocracy or minority rule and majority rights — should we accept this on face value. If the majority did not approve, no minority persons could be vying for the office of the president. Lam Akol and Thomas Cirillo Swaka should know this…             

Posted 23/05/2018 by Ambassador/professor David de Chan

     To professor De Chang, political majority means tribal majority in the Nuer context, and any person with a background in political studies may explain this Nuer dilemma. The majority I know in a political study is the opinion which commands majority support, like say SPLM are the majority, NRM are the majority in the Ugandan parliament etc., not tribe. If this is true, that means that the Nuer do not recognize the other tribes other than the Dinka and are out there to carry the same oppressive policies as are with the Dinka should they grab power. If that is the case, why should other tribes fight along side the Nuer people? The question is where will the non Dinka or Non Nuer go, do they have to be parmentant slaves of the two major tribes or what does it mean to these two tribes?

      Given all the above situation the Dinka planning to establish a permanent ethnic rule in South Sudan, and the Nuer having permanent hatred with the Dinka as well as claiming not to allow any minor tribe to rule the South as per De Chang writing; can peaceful solution really be found within a?  No matter what agreement can be made, the question is “is it realistic that the Nuer and Dinka will coexist at any time possible give their tribal difference which has claimed lives of so many thousands on both sides since the time the SPLM movement was started? Will the circle of revenge really end, when revenge is a cultural aspect of the two tribes? What about if the Nuer assume power in Juba will the Dinka survive without Nuer revenging?  what about the non Dinka, will they accept to become permanent subjects of the two tribes in South Sudan? These are some, but few questions that a liberal minded person may want to ask. Looking from an independent view point, and observations from the trend of events which took place, and are taking place at the moment, one can accurately tell what the future of South Sudan may be.  

     In the hands of the most power hungry people of South Sudan who proclaim that they are born to rule and claim to be the bravest people on earth, no permanent peace will come to South Sudan. Salva Kiir as son of a born to rule community claims he is the leader where as Riak Machar on the other hand claims prophet Nungdeng prophesised that he was the eminent ruler of South Sudan, and that is what the Nuer are out for. How will the two views be compromised? You may say I am not a nationalist, but that is ok for the truth always prevail.

     What then is the best administrative solution for South Sudan! Federalism?  Confederation? or splitting into three countries designated as Naat/Nuer republic to accommodate the Nuer and other tribes in the upper Nile region, Equatoria to accommodate all Equatorians and the other peaceful tribes and Jeing Republic to accommodate the purely Jeing people. If federation is to be tried still a bully will appear since the sovereign powers of the state are divided between the National and the state governments, with the National usually retaining the big tickets elements. With Confederation, few powers are retained by the federation, much better than federalism or Independent states may be the best choice since the independent states will exist as peaceful neighbours.

     From my own observations, I personally believe that independent states may be the best option and is quite possible as these regions were once administered independently during the colonial time and after the independence of Sudan in 1956, but were only brought together by the Addis Ababa agreement of 1972 for the first time. Currently the demand for South Sudan unity as a necessity is not important since our colonial master is gone. Regarding the areas most countries in Europe are smaller than the former Eastern Equatoria alone and this is not an issue to argue about.  Upper Nile and the Bahar El Ghazal regions are the most endowed with resources unlike the Equatoria region. For example, what ever resource you can think of is available in the Upper Nile region: – Water resources, arable land, forest resources, fisheries, wildlife, cattle, and the South Sudan oil to mention, but a few are all in the Upper Nile region. Similar or even more resources to be found in Jeing region of the greater Bahar El Ghazal. As for the Equatoria, although it has no resources as they are in the two regions, it is better to remain poor but to live in peace, than to live in agony, in in the presence of abundant resource.

      It is to be remembered that there is no any bad place on earth, Russia and most European countries are very cold to an extent you cannot imagine a human being to live there, but it is the envy of the world where most immigrants want to live, and the same to the North America continent. It took only hard work and determination to make it more hospitable than one can expect. The current Equatoria where currently everyone likes because it is peaceful and a hide out from revenge killings, was not build by taxes of other regions, but purely by the people of Equatoria with few exceptions. Equatorians embraced the rules of God into their lives, they put peace and hard work as priority, they planted the fruit trees, they build those roads and houses imposed by the colonial master. For these reasons they do not survive on relief as a way of life because the peace they embraced and the hard work of cultivation makes them independent. They love themselves and their peaceful neighbours, they do not believe in killing, and subordination, but humanity and co-existence.

      Peace can equally come to other regions when people embrace God because when he created us he put some rules to govern us from violence. They can avoid relief if they make use and invest in the vast land God has given them. Since God has given them wealth which can translates into billions of dollars each year, equally your region can even in less than a decade becomes the envy of the world better than other European nations.  You will have the best houses, the best roads, the best food and the best of everything. What is difficult when you have the resources at your disposal.

     To mediators, do not take the peace we are looking for for granted, but it is better to dig into the deeper aspects for it. The two rivals can agree but that does not guarantee durable peace in South Sudan. Do not dwell on those who are hurriedly looking for power, but examine the issue thoroughly before you make that decisions/ or suggestion. The issue is not the power, but who will want to live as permanent slave in his own territory. Take it or leave it but these are the facts.

     I would want to conclude by a question to those of you in the army, and other organized forces who are prosecuting the war on the government side in South Sudan. What are you exactly fighting for and who is exactly your enemy? The government is saying you are fighting to depend the sovereignty and the constitution of the country. How is our sovereignty under attack when the war you are fighting is not a foreign aggression by a foreign nation? During foreign invasion, you are able to sacrifice your blood because you are depending the right of your country, but is that true of our case now is South Sudan? Which country is invading us or trying to take our resources? The government is also saying you are depending our national constitution. Which section says we have to eliminate our Nuer people, kill, non Dinka, loot their properties or displace them? I want to make it clear to those of you from non Dinka and those Dinka having good will that there is no national cause for you to sacrifice your blood to fight kill or get kill in a tribal war waged against other tribes. What you are doing is helping the Dinka ethnicity to achieve their goal of Dinka supremacy in South Sudan. If you are a general, commission officers, soldier or member of any organized forces, ask yourself, why are you fighting, why are you sacrificing your blood to depend the government in Juba. You should realize that you are being used as one of the instrument to achieve a tribal agenda. Think about it, you are important to your family and should only fight a war declared by our national parliament against foreign invasion otherwise you are helping your people to suffer more than you might expect.

The author concern citizen and can be reached at mkometkana@Gmail.com


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