By Poor Deng Maceheth (Part one),
April 29, 2017 (Nyamilepedia) —— The befallen problems of South Sudan were long planted before independence and tracing their origin way back to time of Dr. Garang de Mabior. Our current bad status do not start in 2013 or 1991 or 2016 but way back to time of John Garang de Mabior. These curses over Republic of South Sudan are in the hands of the following few:
- John Garang de Mabior, the founding father.
South Sudan’s curses and failures are in the hands of its founding father and that is Dr. John Garang de Mabior, the founding father of SPLM/A. First and foremost, SPLM/A was formed on 16th of May 1983 by Dr. John Garang as Chairman and commander in chief of SPLM/A, Kerubino Kuanyin Bol as Deputy Chairman and Commander in Chief of SPLM/A, William Nyuon Bany as Chief of Staff of SPLA, Arok Thon Arok as head of political Affairs of SPLM/A, Salva Kiir Mayardit as head of SPLA Intelligence, and the long list of SPLA commanders like, Majier Gai, Awet Akot, Wani Igga, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin, James Wani Igga, Daniel Awet Akot, Kuol Manyang Juuk to mention few.
Dr. Garang who was a shrewd manager and orator of the movement planted seeds of suspicions and divisive politics in the movement especially against few intellectuals whom he was suspecting as political threats to him. He started to target any doctorate holder (PHD) like himself in the movement, a move that caused tension with his learned senior officials like Arok Thon Arok, Majier Gai, Dr. Dhol Acuil, Dr. Mading Deng, Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, Magar Achiek, Makur Thou, Garang Aguer, Arop Achier Akol, Akol Akol, Aldo Ajou, among many others I cannot finish mentioning here. The suspicious death of Majier Gai and underground disappearance of senior Commanders and intellectuals caused jitters and eyebrows against Dr. Garang with few like Akol Akol, Arop Achier, Aldo Ajou, Arok Thon Arok, Garang Aguer, Bona Malual Madut, and Dr. Mading Deng started to run away for their own safety after smart Dr. Garang de Mabior turned political plot and assassinations against them.
Dr. Garang’s plots against intellectuals and vocal movement members were the starting point of the movement woes that continue to befallen the now Republic of South Sudan. Dr. John Garang turned to become archaic dictator who only wants sycophants and those who will sing his SPLM/A oyee slogan and that is why current President Salva Kiir Mayardit served under him until his demise in 2005; it is because he was just a disciple of Garang who listen and get entertain by Garang’s enthusiasm and charismatic narratives. He never questioned Garang’s misdeeds until 2002-2004 when disgruntled commanders from Kiir’s backyard fueled tension him and Dr. Garang. Garang’s words and utterances became laws as no one attempts to question his authority or try to dictate his supremacy as SPLM/A only supreme leader in all decisions. Once he goes abroad the movement command chain will be put into confusion and disarrays as deputies and senior commanders of the movement will be left uninformed without clear command with Garang charging his young commanders like CDR Oyai Deng Ajak, CDR Pieng Deng Majok, CDR Pagan Amum, CDR Deng Alor Kuol in charge leaving his naïve deputies and high commanders in confusion on who exactly is in charge in the event the Commander In Chief is absent. His companions to any foreign trips will always be young commanders like Nhial Deng Nhial, Pagan Amum, and James Wani Igga just to mention few. His high commanders are either ignored or left with undefined orders and duties. Some few senior commanders who could be seen to question C in-C orders are sent to tough enemy zones far from the Commander In Chief’s headquarters. This include his Deputy CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol who was sent to eastern/northern front (Blue Nile, Eastern Sudan, Southern Kordofan), this is to isolate him from being near to the Commander In chief in order to avoid questioning his decisions. CDR Dr. Machar Teny was sent to Leer and Western Nile to mobilize western Nuers to join the movement, but that was Garang’s trick to isolate Dr. Machar who was once a private secretary to Garang and who seemed unhappy with Garang’s deeds about the movement activities. CDR Salva Kiir was sent to Bhar el Ghazal region with intention to keep him off from Garang’s plans and to allow Garang to bring up new commanders like CDR Nhial Deng, CDR Pieng Deng, CDR Yasir Arman, to mention few who will counter Senior Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, now the President of the Republic South Sudan. CDR Justin Yac Arop was brought in as close friend and advisor to Garang in order for him to give shrewd Dr. Garang secrets about his Deputy Kerubino Kuanyin Bol Deng whom he suspected to be a great critic in future. CDR Lual Diing Wol was brought in also to counter CDR George Kwach and Kawaj Makuei whom Garang saw as a threat to his decision making about the movement and its developmental progress to liberate Southern Sudanese and marginalized groups from Khartoum tyrant Arab regime.
This suspicious act from Dr. John Garang characterized by unwarranted promotions and rewards of juniors to high ranking positions without consulting seniors and high command of the movement cause jitters and with few like Dr. Lam and Dr. Riek Machar. This eventually led them to plan a coup in August 1991 with Nasir declaration against Garang whom they alleged to have been overthrown by the Nasir Faction. Several commanders who were suspected to be close to breakaway faction under Dr. Machar were either executed or put under cruel detention. This led to mass exodus of several senior members either back to Khartoum or abroad after their lives were threatened by Garang’s secret plots against them.
Few months after Dr. Riek Machar’s Nasir faction declaration, Dr. Garang arrested his deputy CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol whom he placed under house arrested after he questioned the way Garang exclusively made decisions without due consultations. Few months later, CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol with the help of his close associates from his home yard Bhar el Ghazal managed to help escape from prison. CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol managed to run for his safety after Garang ordered for his execution after prison break. Those ordered to pursue him were his own backyard soldiers who decided to defy orders of pursuing him and instead crossed R. Nile back to Bhar el Ghazal. After discovering the soldiers under command of Captain have decided to run away, a big squad was sent to pursue and bring them back. After three days pursuit, the pursuing squad caught up with them. The soldiers under captain were overjoyed thinking their colleagues followed them to go back home. The pursuing squad commander who was under Major, deceived them that they are running away too like their colleagues, this was a tactical way of avoiding confrontation. The squad under captain was eventually arrested and taken back to the headquarters were they escaped. Immediately after their arrival back, they were ordered to be fire squad in broad day light with big artilleries like “Zoos” and BMs being used to hit the unarmed soldiers. Commander Kuol Manyang Juuk was tasked by Dr. Garang to execute the orders of C in-C without failure. The execution of these soldiers was to act as warning to any soldier who will attempt again to escape or follow CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol.
This atrocious act of mass execution of soldiers angered CDR Nyuon Bany who staged rebellion against Garang in broad day light in Pageri by ordering his troops to move out of their base towards his home town before the naked eyes of Garang. Garang didn’t order for the arrest of Nyuon Bany due to fear of repercussion since he walked off on Garang’s face after differing with him in a meeting. The Split of Nyuon Bany dealt Garang a big blow with almost all his seniors and founding members abandoning him and formed factions. This includes Bhar el Ghazal faction under CDR Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, Ayod faction under CDR Nyuon Bany, Nasir faction under CDR Dr. Riek Machar, among others. The fragmentation of the movement into pieces of factions led to Garang calling for Chukudum convention that eventually led to re-structuring of the so called SPLM/A with Dr. Garang de Mabior re-affirmed as Chairman and commander in chief of the movement, CDR Salva Kiir Mayardit promoted as new 1st Deputy Chairman and Commander In chief, with Wani Igga as 2nd Deputy Chairman and commander in chief, CDR Malik Agar, third deputy Chairman of SPLM/A, Yasir Arman Secretary of SPLM/A foreign relations. It was in Chukudum Garang was crowned the supreme dictator with all oyee sycophants led by Salva Kiir.
BOTTOM LINE OF GARANG’S WEEDS OF WOES OVER SOUTH SUDAN
Garang’s solely act in all decisions of the movement as Chairman and Commander In chief, treasurer with full control of movement resources and finances, making orders without due consultations, made him the most supreme dictator of all bush guerillas of the 21st century. Everyone was afraid of him as any attempt to question his decisions will make you lose your life, for instance, CDR George Kwach whom he hated for being adamant orator like him was suspiciously killed in one of the Nairobi city hospitals after he differed with Supreme Dr. Garang de Mabior early 2000.
Dr. Garang’s act as only sole supreme SPLM/A decision-maker created a fraction of supreme leaders under him who act as law and authority in their areas of jurisdiction. Whatever said by a commander during those days of the liberation is law and final, as no one will ever attempt to question their powers and survive. These commanders under Garang give orders of fire squad to any errant soldiers or civilian without even consulting the hierarchy of the movement, for instance, CDR Kuol Manyang Juuk, now Defender Minister was the most feared commander in Upper Nile region as he gave orders of fire squad to any culprit who committed crimes even as little as adultery, CDR Awet Akot was also the most feared military commander during those days in the region of Bhar el Ghazal, CDR Joseph Mamur Mete, now current national security minister was also the dread commander in Equatoria region. These military commanders among others learned from Dr. Garang that a leader with full supreme powers is most respected. And indeed Garang and his senior military officers were most respected not because they were doing things well for society’s natural way of living but due to cruel and absolute powers they possess. These powerful leaders act with cruelty against anyone they perceived to be against them.
This dictatorial tendency developed by Garang created sycophancy in the movement with all senior commanders taking Garang’s words as law and authority. There was creation of protocol of respect, that whatever said by your senior is law and authority whether bad or good, like it or not. This wrong precedence set poor path to the current living leaders who live to follow the footsteps of their paramount, founding, and father of our national foundation and dictatorship. Garang slogan of “don’t rob and don’t leave it” made it to J1 aka State House with perimeters of cruelty and acting without sympathy being experimented in broad day light in Juba State house. That is why Juba state house now becomes a looting spree ground where national resources are owned by few who know no one to question them because the supreme naïve dictator is there for them.
All senior commanders, MPs, and ministers among other senior members of the movement have taken themselves as law and authority and any attempt to oppose them you are termed as traitor and rebel, the same tactics used by Garang to brand his critics as rebels and Nyigat (traitors). This act breeds rampant and merciless corruption of looting public resources without fear because what is law? Isn’t them as law? Whatever they do and so decided must be followed by public and anyone who attempt to question such misdeeds and evils, you are either alive with Dr. Garang or risk self-exile for your own safety and life. This is why I hold Dr. John Garang de Mabior, the founding father of our nation as being responsible for all our current woes and curses because he set in place a poor precedence that created anarchic character from our leaders who believe in themselves as law and everything to live. Garang never bother himself instilling respect for rule of law in his commanders. They love being worshipped and called with respectful titles and making worse dictators than Adolf Hitler of Germany and 19th century world feared dictator.
Dr. Garang de Mabior set in place many things that are now burying our country and future and current generation whose future is now at stakes. Our leaders and liberators under Garang turned from being liberators to looters of public coffers. Here are some things I said Garang has a hand in our dwindling status:
- Garang’s Exclusive control of SPLM/A or movement resources
Dr. John Garang was the sole and single owner/holder of all movement resources. He was the sole signatory of all bank accounts of the movement with few confidants from his family. All money from donors and well-wishers were deposited into his accounts that are not known by public. This became bad precedence because Salva Kiir and his government follow same footsteps without failing a single step as he even made it better than his predecessor, Dr. Garang by squandering all public resources for himself and family plus associates close to him. They loot everything for themselves creating wealthy liberators with protruding stomachs with selfish characters instead of using these resources to build themselves good apartments and assets, poor liberators and looters choose to buy apartment abroad. Just like Garang who stored his wealth abroad, our respectful looters fitted themselves into Garang’s shoes. Dr. John Garang chose to accumulate movement’s wealth for himself, without failure Salva Kiir and his fellow looters choose to place public coffers for themselves and their sycophants/former Beshir’s bootlickers who praise President Kiir as senior looter. This is the key reason I say that Dr. Garang has brought up cohorts and looters who easily forget the meaning of nationalism and patriotism for which they spent 21 years in the bush. They easily change from honorable liberators to become shameful looters of our resources.
- Garang’s Dictatorial tendency
Dr. John Garang who was leading the movement with iron fist passed on his tyrant and exclusive decision making to his naïve juniors especially unexpected President in the name of Kiir Mayardit who eventually becomes doom and disgrace to Republic of South Sudan. Garang was a smart dictator with oriented decision that please a quota of his followers, unlike poor President who allow himself to be exploited by former Arab bootlickers in the names of Tor Deng Mawien and Bona Malual Madut who are now his key advisors. These individuals turn into a monster that uses his powers to blackmail the public. This dictatorial tendency was created by Garang himself that was to be inherited by Kiir and all senior commanders who now turn ugly looters and politicians. Garang used to undermine his Deputy Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, Nyuon Bany, Arok Thon Arok, Salva Kiir among others in all decision making as he assume himself as the only educated man in the movement. That was the same tactics adopted by Kiir to undermine his own deputies in decision making especially in SPLM bureau. It is this undermining tendency that brings about ugly loose of hell in Juba, December 2013. Having known that he is losing popularity in SPLM bureau, he turned to become a ruthless dictator who cooked coups for himself, killing thousands innocent blood.
- Garang’s love for sycophancy
Dr. Garang was adamant molder of sycophants, people who will say “oyee” to his decisions without questioning anything and that was how Garang sharply differ with his deputies like Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, and Nyuon Bany who tried to correct him and advise him to consult I the decisions concerning movement and its operational activities. Garang gave them deaf ears and instead he plotted to eliminate them one by one. This sycophantic attitude made Garang the only decision maker in the affairs of the movement. That is the same thing being applied by Kiir and all SPLM leaders. Kiir expects total respect of being the only SPLM leader with full authority in decision making. This turns ugly against him when his shambolic and greedy juniors including Dr. Machar who violently response to Kiir’s dictatorial tendency. Kiir took advantage of his impatient attitude and used it to stage personal coup against his himself. A self-claimed coup in which narratives do not make sense to any reasonable man on the street only fools are dragged into it to cause spill of innocent blood. Shame on them!
If Garang would have set in place good principles to be followed by his followers and leaders, then this confused status would have not come forth and set us back to dark days. Lack of principles for respect of rule of law creates this mess because if Garang would have taught them to respect rule of law, this mess would have not come to surface. Until these cruel leaders learn to respect laws and put spiritual patriotism and nationalism, South Sudan will continue to bleed for generations.
President Salva Kiir fitted himself into the shoes of his predecessor by practicing the same tactics used by Garang. He developed himself into a monster and dictator after unexpected ascendency to power after sudden the demise of his master and originator of dictatorship in the Republic of South Sudan in July 2005. Just as Garang was only controller of resources of the movement, Salva Kiir stepped into his shoes by turning Bank of South Sudan into his own private account where he loots as he wishes without any accountability. No one ever question Garang to account for public SPLM resources just like Salva Kiir who is now free to use Republic resources at will and disposal. Garang was adamant lover of sycophancy among his following in the movement and he never go along well with his critics who questioned his bad deeds like General Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, General Lam Akol, General Riek Machar, General Nyuon Bany, among many others. Sycophants like his long serving Deputy Salva Kiir were just naïve followers who sing a song of his supreme master “oyee.” Garang love for corruption, sycophancy and dictatorship put our country’s future in jeopardy after his poor and heartless remnants followed his bad footsteps.
My next articles (Part 2 & 3) will touch Salva Kiir as number 2 woe and Dr. Machar as number 3 doom to our current mess…
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