The African Union, Troika and The IGAD Must Leverage Juba and Kampala to Execute the Peace Accord

By Peter Lokarlo Ngrimwa*

Former Lecturer,

Graduate School of Business and Law (GSBL)

RMIT University

IGAD summit has commended the recommitment by the two leaders, H.E. Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) and Dr. Riek Machar, former Vice President of the RSS and Leader of the SPLM/A-In Opposition, to end the war and fully engaging in the ongoing peace process as per the 9 May 2014 Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan;

IGAD summit has commended the recommitment by the two leaders, H.E. Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) and Dr. Riek Machar, former Vice President of the RSS and Leader of the SPLM/A-In Opposition, to end the war and fully engaging in the ongoing peace process as per the 9 May 2014 Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan;

Dec 2, 2015(Nyamilepedia) —- Examining the African Union (AU) appeal to SPLM-IO to regularly attend the JMEC meetings, I think it would be prudent for the African body in the first instance to address the lingering and melancholy issue of the more often repeated violations of the rickety ceasefire committed by the government of Salva Kiir and then ensure that the Peace Agreement is implemented accordingly in order to end the hemorrhage of the youngest nation on the planet rather than requesting the SPLM-IO to attend meetings that would be organized by JMEC in the near future. In this respect, the continental organization palpably appears to have started its superintending role of South Sudan’s Peace Agreement from an asymmetrical premise far divorced from discernment of the precise prevailing political status quo. The AU should primarily and without prejudice establish whether or not the concluded agreement is being executed as stipulated in the inherent articles and clauses of the document.

Startlingly, the AU expects the advanced team of the SPLM-IO to relocate to Juba while the regime in the country persistently launches airborne assaults on the positions of the latter’s combatants in Western and Central equatorial states. In the latest premeditated attacks the regime in Juba employed helicopter gunships which produced fatality figures which by conservative estimates ranged between 50 and 100 dead and over 100 civilians sustained various degrees of injuries including 2 senior military officers from the opposition’s side murdered. Under such caustic environment it would manifestly be naïve for the AU and the JMEC to cajole or prod the leadership of SPLM-IO to travel to Juba and form a unity government, or attend JMEC meetings in Juba. Moreover, it is important to note that the peace agreement explicitly specifies that the Ugandan military and other foreign forces must leave South Sudan before any formation of a broad-based government in the war-torn country, but plainly the AU does not seem concerned about such a key provision of the peace accord, nor anxious about the need to verify the dubious claims by both Ugandan and the Juba governments on the withdrawal of the Uganda troops commonly known as the UPDF from South Sudan. There would tangibly be much lesser or no incentive at all to sign an agreement if there is no commitment to implement it by the pertinent parties or when it is deemed to become non-binding on the parties named therein.

Moreover, the peripatetic rebel groups fighting against the government of Sudan, namely the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), the SPLM-North based in Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains are actively deployed in South Sudan and attacking the SPLM/A-IO to date alongside President Kiir’s marauding troops and private militia army in company of Ugandan UPDF contingents who are viewed by South Sudanese as a murderous mercenary force. The AU, Troika and JMEC have never bothered to tell President Kiir to send them away from South Sudan in conformity with the binding peace agreement. The AU and JMEC are simply being alarmistic in predicting an impending cataclysmic portrait in South Sudan in the absence of a functioning unity government in the country without realizing that they have to do something about it. Nevertheless, such an assertion sounds quite ludicrous because the AU and Company should primarily ensure the execution of the agreement by pressurizing the regime in Juba to respect the peace accord, other than making a statement about the formation of a unity government. The AU’s dossier of failures in resolving the continent’s seething problems including the Darfur conflict is a plain testimony of the organization’s lethargic stance.

The redeployment of the government troops from Juba to designated locations of 25km radius from the capital city is being cosmetically projected and handled, evidently with the intention of sabotaging this essential clause of the agreement. It has been claimed by Juba that about 250 soldiers have been relocated outside the town. Until when would the several thousands of troops and their equipment be removed from the city? The AU, Troika, IGAD and JMEC seem to be critically ill-equipped in terms of accessing accurate information on South Sudan that could enable the group deal with the overall situation or determine what should be done in order to halt the violence and usher peace in South Sudan. President Museveni of Uganda, being an elderly influential figure in the IGAD circle as well as an embodiment of the problem in the troubled country does not offer a trustworthy template for resolving the conflict in the country as this would in his flawed judgement compromise Uganda’s interests.

It must spicily be stress that up to this moment the travel of the advanced team of SPLM-IO to the capital of Juba is never a priority at all, but the systematic execution of the peace accord that should begins with a binding ceasefire is. As thousands of innocent civilians have perished especially from the 15th December 2013, following the government’s calculated mass murders and sporadic massacre at an industrial scale (AU Commission’s Report 2015), a carefully-structured approach designed in line with the peace agreement should have precedent over a hurried and unempirical solutions. The SPLM-IO’s advanced Team would move to Juba once the following requirements have been fulfilled:

  • Ugandan army withdrawn from the territory of South Sudan, and it absolutely verified by the relevant competent authority, except those deployed in Western Equatoria and not covered by the agreement;
  • The JEM and other Sudanese rebels fighting against the government of Sudan are withdrawn from the territory of the Republic of South Sudan;
  • Demilitarization of Juba by the South Sudan’s army is accomplished and also verified as stipulated in the agreement;
  • The regime in South Sudan stops its aggression and extreme violence against civilians and opposition elements in the country. Peace cannot hold on in the face of persistent attacks by government troops in a brazen disregard of the ceasefire.

It is worth noting that President Kiir had earlier refused to sign the peace agreement willingly and had to do it only under duress from the international community. In this regard the president and his tribally-constituted assemblage of Dinka elders commonly known as the Jeng Council of Elders (JCE) incessantly attempts to procrastinate and frustrate the execution of the peace deal with ample blessings from the Ugandan “life” President, Yoweri Museveni who noticeably stands to gain from the spill of blood of South Sudanese and Ugandan soldiers alike that are still battling the opposition forces of SPLA in South Sudan.

In conclusion, the AU, Troika the UN and IGAD should leverage the government in Juba to accommodate, appreciate and implement the peace agreement in its totality. Blaming the SPLM-IO for non-attendance of the JMEC meetings is probably quite irrelevant. Urging for the formation of a government of national unity premised on shaky foundation constitutes a time bomb and consequently a recipe for disaster. It is regrettable that the core concern stems from the lack of executing the agreement that originates from an evident failure of the IGAD, AU and the Troika in persuading the government of South Sudan to behave responsibly by ending the war and start to learn and appreciate the value of peace and sanctity of human life in South Sudan.

Peter Lokarlo Ngrimwa*

Former lecturer,

Graduate School of Business and Law (GSBL)

RMIT University

Emily McPherson Building 13,

379 – 405 Russell Street Melbourne

VIC 3000 Melbourne

Australia.

11 comments

  • DINGIT NA TUGGÖ

    Mr. Peter Lokarlo,

    what you wrote is what all the peace loving population of this beloved country want. But the gready dinka in Juba do not want peace because they are the most idiot, lazy, corrupt people on earth. They fear peace because with peace, peopele will create true democracy not dinka autocracy. They have been covering their dirty games of land grabbing, rapping, killing, corruption, triblism, nepotism and etc by telling the world that they are the good rulers in South Sudan. But they are the worst looters of South Sudan resources. Good that the world knows about their lies when they claim there was a coup in Juba but there was non.

    Though the international community knows about this, yet it is our duty to keep on explaining the sins of this tribe call jenge, arian jenge. They started crying right when the peace was signed in Addis Ababa. But let the international community not listen to their dying horse cry. They are the worst enemy of peace in this country.

    On the other hand we need to be confidence that the rule of this tribe is coming to an end soon. I saw baaak, tolio and majokdit crying day and night helping kirr in his mourn for losing the dempolatic battle to Dr. Riak and Lado Gore. The jenge have turned mad. They have started fighting themselves in churches. All of them want to become presidents of this country …………………Oh my God what a true mess. We must vote this dirty tribe out of any rule of this country.

    • Nuer Rebellion is nothing to Dinka, you always defected from Dinka and same time you come back to Dinka there is no way out you can defeate Dinka because you caused a war which you don,t even have Objectives to fight for. and without Dinka you Riek machar Nuer rebels cannot RULE south sudan, continue talking about Dinka and you will not RULE south sudan as Nation
      Amlighty God create Dinka as biggest tribe in south sudan and create Dinka as humble people as they cannot fight for what they don,t know there is a word in Dinka language KANKOC Dinka man cannot fight without tell his brother KANKOC but Nuer don,t have that word they just like flies which jump into unknown things.
      forget of Riek machar will become president without Dinka you better collaborate with Dinka first

  • why are you serious about peace and you are the one who caused the war in south sudan you rebels, you cannot cause fighting and same time you want peace without even spenting two years in the bush. struggle is all about suffering don,t cry for peace and you didn,t achieve what let you defected from kiir mayardit.
    Riek Machar Nuer rebellion cannot achieve the Goal because they are for food ONLY,

  • DINGIT NA TUGGÖ

    amen the bastard,

    do not point your dirty finger to Nuer, it IS as you are pointing it to GREATER EQUATORIA, Shilluk Kingdom, Murle and etc. This war is not longer between Nuer and you but it is between all tribes of South Sudan as a whole except you the idiot jenge, jengetot. You already know this. Now you hate Joseph Olony from Shilluk, you hate Alfred Lado Gore from Greater Equatoria, you have Clement Wani Konga, Bakasoro. Who do you think will like you in this country?

    Do not think the war against jenge is a Nuer war no no no no and big NOOOO. Please begin to realise that you will never hide your wounded face in Juba. We know how you look like, exactly like a cow and it is very easy to figure you out. We know that in Juba at least you put on trousers though without underwear. Trying to look at least almost like us but you forgot that you have got no teeth in your big mouth. We will find a civilised dog to find you out by smiling your dirty batacks before we kick it out of Juba.

  • Tolio

    Peace occurs between two or more parties to disputes,as agreed according to types of communication methods used. It means stop fighting,quarreling, rebellions and reconcile with one another and be friends again. I have never looked this definition up in a dictionary. It comes from my own brain.

  • gat.darwich

    Jenges’ state sponsored terrorism organization-SPLA/SPLM in Juba is imminently demising and will/shall be history soon.

    Whether Uganda, TRIOKA, and their conspirators like it or not, South Sudan will be ruled/governed by people oriented individual(Dr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon), and not by sellout, power-hungry-greedy, and traitorous, Killer NyanKiir or Jiengs Council of Evils period

  • Tolio

    What’s disturbing the peace signed in Ethiopia between the government, SPLM-IO and SPLM-FDs in Equatoria?

    Attacks on government troops in their barracks,attacks on government troops on public roads and attacks on commercial vehicles carrying civilians in vicinities of Yei,Munderi,Maridi, Pagari and Wondaruba.

    Who is behind these attacks?

    Rebel soldiers such as the Arrow Boys,Madis,and the original members of the SPLM-I-O have acknowledged being in those areas They all accept the responsibilities for being the ones who target the government troops,although they denied attacks which killed civilian passengers and lootings of these civilian s’ personal belongings which no known other party against the government seems to own.

    Recently, those groups claimed in their news articles published on this website that they had killed the government’s senior commander in Pagari which they were very excited to announce and celebrate.

    Between Munderi and Maridi,the Arrow Boys said they stopped seven Jeep trucks,killed SPLA soldiers,dispersed some of them into bushes and took some of their Injuried soldiersc as prisoners.

    The bus carrying only civilians heading to Uganda was attacked. South Sudanese and foreign nationals aboard were killed instantly while some ran to the jungle and came back to their bulleted vehicle remaining in the scene after they saw government soldier arrived to their rescue.

    After the alleged meeting between the government of South Sudan and Uganda on the two countries’borders ,high ranking military commanding officers from the government of South Sudan were ambushed amongst the hills and killed according to Madi’s soldiers who have an alliance with the SPLM-IO seen in the media repoert.

    Now let’s assume we know that peace means:no more fighting, no more querreling,no more rebellions,reconcile the differences and be friends once again,you will find that such actions which the Arrow Boys,Original SPLM-IO,Madi and other an unknown attackers,are in consistent with the definition of the word ‘peace’ and directly against it. All these attacks, as well as the rebellions by The Arrows and Madis rebels,come after the peace was signed between the government, SPLM-I-O and SPLM-DF. Even though they have made an alliance with the SPLM-IO through the Media announcements,it remains illegal to the government and them as well,because the peace that was signed didn’t have these new rebels aboard.These attacks and rebellions themselves,are against the peace.The same can be said about Shilluk Tiger Forces and those of Gabriel Changson.

    Is the government of South Sudan an aggressor in retaliation to these attacks and rebellions after the peace was signed,then?

    No, the government of South Sudan acts in self defence. It used attack helicopters very recently to carry out attacks on the rebel forces that led to the killings of this enemy’s soldiers. The writer of this article called it a murder,which is disagreeable, since they causes of the retaliation that led to the result are obvious to the government, rebels and the general public.

    Is the call on IGAD and TROIK to put more pressure on government of South Sudan necessary and warrantable,despite the fact that it acts in retaliations to aggressions such as attacks and rebellions which happened after it has signed the peace with the SPLM-IO and SPLM-FO?

    Absolutely not. The IGAD and TROIKA need new ways to resolve the new rebellions stemming from the Arrow Boys,Madis and other rebels who have ermerged after the peace was signed and their attacks on the government troops and passengers on public roads make them an abstacle in the way to implementation of the current accord.

  • Tolio

    The issue of Ugandan troops being still present on South Sudan soil as the rebel oppositions argue: it is against the peace.

    It must be emphasized that, there is no presence of Ugandan troops in South Sudan.

    They had withdrawn themselves and their equipment they use for combat operations.

    The government of South Sudan had given them farewells both in Bor and Juba.

    Ugandan fourth estate witnessed their withdrawing and traveled with them from South Sudan,back to their own country. This is a fact that no body shall dispute

    The Ugandan forces aught to be irrelevant topic of socioeconomic and political propaganda or spin as from now amongst the people of South Sudan.

  • Tolio

    Now,let’s talk about Sudanese rebels from Nubia Mountains and Darfur whom the oppositions and their supporters such as the author of this article claim that they are in South Sudan,still fighting them on behalf of the government of South Sudan which the pesident of the republic,Lt General Salva Kiir leads and that these are mercenaries who should be kicked out of South Sudan as stipulated by the peace agreement and so as to make it work.

    All can be said is,there is no indication that these rebels from Sudan are in South Sudan but there is evidence that they in Sudan,because if they are not there,the war would have ceased in Sudan. There would have not been reasons for SAF air campaigns on Nuba Mountains which have recently killed innocent civilians,although they weren’t the target as any government would like to say.There would have not been reasons to sign the recent ceasefire and ongoing peace negotiations between them,the Government of Sudan and other opposition groups.

    Even thought it was true that these rebels are in South Sudan, it would be still hard to kick them out, because we don’t have united military ranks in South Sudan whose attention is on monitoring of our borders due to the split of the national military between the government and the rebels. The focus is now on the enemy within the vicinities, not on territories.

    The borders between Sudan and South Sudan are not demarcated,resulting in Sudan breaching our sovereignty. If South Sudan doesn’t spot any country like Sudan which drops weapons to the rebel forces of South Sudan, do you think we can track down the Sudanese rebels alleged to be in South Sudan, even if they are kicked out? It is impossible without advanced surveillance capabilities and competencies to monitor our territorial integrities from the out side interferences.IGAD has no such capabilities although it is tasked with monitoring of this agreement. American actor,George Colony has a satellite and can do the capable monitoring than all African nations can put in place.

    The issue of foreign forces is also politicization,stemming from Sudan because of South Sudan connection
    With the people of Nubia Mountains.since, Sudan has this problem which it can’t solve,it blames South Sudan for it. Sudan thinks we Supply its rebels with weapons, which isn’t true,since we don’t have factory like it does. This is the reason why it supports rebels from South Sudan to fight its proxy wars,so we are all the same with it.

  • when the dog is barking at you you don,t turn at your back and look at it . same thing to all the words being said by rebels agaist government all are nothing to government activities in south sudan