John Juan Don: “ Look at the republican motto carefully you get the type of system we are in”
“Do not keep me unpopular by killing myself, or I go back home and follow my father who fostered me.”
By John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government officer
Feb 17, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — In literature, there is no book or (history of a nation that bears two titles. But in a country like South Sudan which was founded through the help of world community, once it is forgotten, ruled and sunk in a pool of stagnant water under the cover of darkness, the world shouldn’t be kept mum. Therefore, nothing is impossible to have two titles in one under this circumstance. This short article is divided into four small parts.
1). Part one is about introduction;
2). Part two is a short record about the two historical receptions of the SPLA/SPLM Advanced Team on 4/4/2005 at Khartoum International Air-Port, followed by the huge public reception of the Chief In Command and Leader of SPLA/SPLM, Dr. John Garang De Mabior. Are they still honored for what the country achieved?
3). Part three analyses the “ 8 Bad omens” which show signals of misfortune a head to a country as proved by the 15th Juba massacre and the destruction made by SPLA forces still fighting until today. Could it be because the historical vision of our political founders is rebuked and neglected?
4). Part four: Recommendation for the best system to be introduced in South Sudan in the coming IGAAD peace talk 2015 to cleanse suspicion between people of 64 tribes in one country.
“Do not keep me unpopular by killing myself or else let me go back home and follow my father who fostered me”
“I was founded under the cover of those tall grasses in my uncle land called “Bielpaam” in 1983. In summer, the tall green grass is given the name” Loom” in Nuer’ language, turned to be losing out to encroaching brown that exhibited a beautiful scenery of a yellow curtain at sun set. And to my historical memory, I was raised among tall well built people of smart black skin mixed with some short ones of a brown color that looked like people from equatorial climate whom are all my uncles. I was a very small child who was given two names in one, SPLA/SPLM, and in action, they separate. No action executed by one whether physically or hyper physically without the other to know. While growing, I was feeling superstitious and super structural in power in my uncle land. Being strong SPLA/SPLM, I established different military training centers in my uncle’s land Bielpaam, such as THARPAAM that graduated Zalzal(2) Battalion( زلزال ) and Inntisaar( إنتصار). Congratulation to Bielpaam my Headquarters by graduating the first SPLA Battalions of historical fighters, Tumsah( تمساح ), Jamoos( جاموس) and Tiger( تايقر) ). We all worked hard like bees without discrimination along tribes or language, because we all shared the same language. We were full of courage as one organ like school boys of Atar Intermediate School and Rumbek of those days, except we are military fighters. As men, we sometimes had quarrels like school boys during football games. And in the evening we remembered our social cultural life during moonlight. I’m proud that I also graduated Mormor in Bunga( مورمور ) There was no ruler and no one to rule. Why do you want to rule and not supervise? The union of our old districts was shown at Bielpaam under my umbrella. There was no hard currency in USD killing in neither my forces nor system of ruling of envying brothers. Our USD was ammunitions being distributed equally without envying a brother. We were fighting to get a country first and give the power to people. My father who fostered me said “We shall transfer development to rural areas where there is population”. No leader conspired against brother and we had a unanimous decision making. The life was splendid among good society of Gaajak Nuer tribe full of songs and dances as they were security we depended on them faithfully. No soldier attempted to leaching civilians in their residential areas because we were a government. I had hard time during excessive enemy’s attacks. In 1985-86 I spread northwards to Jelhag crossing the Nile to South Kurdufan and then to Blue Nile being led by vigilant Commanders. I grew up among them with life described by commitments, order and command, but full of love and respect. The year witnessed tough military engagements between the SPLA/SPLM and government troops in different fronts. The tall grass curtain, under which I was born, turned into ash, trees scattered, and streams dried up under several enemy attacks from different directions. Spontaneously, I found myself fielded with power, the spiritual power of my origin that I was born under those tall yellow grass curtains. In one of the fiercest fights with the enemy when neither side was chased nor defeated, I found myself filed with power and suddenly, a sound like thunder was heard from the rear “SPLA O YEA” With that sound, the battlefield suddenly turned into mixture of dust and smoke and the roaring of heavy artilleries was heard at a distance with assign of disperse, the enemy retreated, then followed by rain falls. “That was my right hand name “SPLA” given to me by all in the bush and NOT by a certain tribe because we had no tribes by then. Gradually, I came to know that my father who fostered me was called “Dr. John Garang de Mabior”. Furthermore, “As a son born in the house of his uncles, grew up with them, fought along with them, until we have a country, why should I be prevented to visit them and live with them, for sometimes to remember and share that history and love. Likewise, Why am I kept in confinement without visiting my other uncles far south in Equatorial climate? I was popularly fostered and made not to be envious, or be envied. I’m not born cruel, weak or greedy to kill everybody (including myself) under the cover of so called tribalism. Why my name is being spoiled by the ongoing war, the war of greed with no end? Even the native fight does not take two days, and life turns to normal among the pastorals. I have Just come from regional war and my wounds have not yet healed and my colleagues in arms’ orphans still yawning. “Why is my character being misused against my tribe, South Sudan whom I grew up among them all in Bielpaam? I was born popular in my uncle’s land of origin. Why am I being prevented to be popular there than where I’m kept to kill them? This is not my nature as a strong power to kill my citizens. I labored for them, and have made covenant with God because of them under that tall grass. I came from those tall grasses that established a country, and from where my father was made to return before establishing a system of ruling as planned, following the footsteps of our first historical and political founders of South Sudan. Thank you”
Truly, who can deny the cry of SOLA/SPLM recalling those good and cherished moments compared to the present situation. Any political leadership of a party or system like SPLM that interprets or describes an opinion or suggestion rose by a member in a high party agenda discussion as a tribal has intentions to harm the political prestige of others as well as the political characteristic of that key member. Such party is exposed to split and can lead the country and its people into flames as we witness today. It is exactly like what is now taking place in the SPLM party. One is called SPLA/SPLM with government, centered over the mass graves of his colleagues in Juba capital city where power is distributed and supervised. The other is called SPLA/SPLM in Opposition, preferred to centre where it was born under those tall yellow grass curtain, its home of origin, Bielpaam. But there is another old SPLM that split in 2009, named SPLM Democratic Change (D.C) with Headquarters anywhere in south Sudan. If the three SPLM today form the shape of a tripartite triangle, what will prevent it tomorrow to form the shape of trapezoid or trapezium? The triangle that it shapes is not certain to survive according to Architects. This uncivilized political approach as well as military confrontation is a bad sign of distrust to a big party that bear the country’s aspiration. Which farmer could reject a donation of a cultivating machine to enter his farm for better production and appreciable yield? Without doubt that farmer would appreciate such an offer because his farm will produce the different types of crops successfully. It is opened to any able Southern Sudanese to invest. But why has SPLM refused to be invested after the death of the forester Dr. John Garang de Mabior?
Parties in other Democratic countries like Israel and Japan, scholars used the term Realignment to describe a major shift in the political division within a country. Realignment marks a new change in direction for the party that redefines what it means to be a member of that party. It usually occurs when a new issue challenges the old party lines and splits its members, like the case of Juba massacre. The issue is after crosscutting: Major parties are split on a matter, and some democrats find they agree with Republicans more than Democrats. When the issue becomes critically important, the parties shift around Axis of the new issue, and a new party system emerges.
Suppose SPLM turned to split into six isn’t threatening its survival? But if one of the six SPLM split appeared to be one tribe, will it not take them back to the time of British colony, when each court centre of sub/ tribe was given special treatment? Dr, Garang was vigilant to keep the unity of the party. He never described a suggestion raised by a member of political Bureau or liberation Council as tribal. Lt Intellectually, he was very much aware that such lose and casual talk would ruin the strong built “house”. Besides, the ethnic soldiers or lay men would find no ill intention in the person and the matter proposed. Even after split of 1991, still Garang had the confidence in Dr. Riek Machar not as a leader of a big tribe but because he was aiming at a direct cut the separation of the South. This is evidenced in Garang’s philosophy, in June 2003 of All Upper Nile Peace Conference at Panyiguor, Dr. Garang left the conference (his home) to Rumbek and entrusted Dr. Riek Machar to proceed with the peace conference to chair it and close it as well as to receive General Symboya while himself as a leader was on his trip to Rumbeke. Dr. Riek proceeded with the final talks on behalf of Dr. John Garang, and had an intensive closed meeting with General Symboya regarding peace process between the SPLA and Khartoum government. The Upper Nile peace conference was closed on the 30th of July 2003 successfully and we the five from opposition parties, Rev. Ezikiel Kutjok Akulith of SCC, late Rev. John Gatluh of Malakal Presbyterian Church, late Ostaz Thomas Kume Kan, late eng. Mathew Othow Deng, and I myself the youngest and head of the delegation returned to Khartoum. It is worth mentioning for historical records that Dr. John Garang de Mabior invited us a day before the conference was convened on the 22nd of July 2003 for a special talk in his secret residence outside the town. He became so pleased with Rev. Ezikiel Kutjok who applauded Garang to hurry with peace so as to accommodate many people referring to Gospel of John Ch.(1) when Jesus said my father’s house has so many rooms. That was how the party is built through trust. Even after the death of Dr. John Garang, president Kiir followed the same policy until 2011 when he became the president. (Oh Lord, something went wrong here!) It is himself the president who knows better the secret about the U-turn in his leadership. What is behind the curtain?
Can a president build his political career, or build it through a committee of tribal ethnicity?
If he realized that there is an outcry of people because of a great fault in his government, shall he resign before he is exposed to public and the world, or he is advised by the committee to wage war against people crying? Richard Milhous Nixon (Jan 9, 1913-April22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States of America. He subsequently served in the United States Navy World War 11. He was elected president 1968. His administration generally transferred power from Washington to the states. He imposed wage and price control, enforced desegregation of southern school and established the environmental protection agency. And in August 1974, he took up his pen and resigned. Why did he resign? He resigned because of a continuing series of revelation about the Watergate Scandal. He never resisted power or killed his people. This is the president!!
The Problems of SPLA/SPLM leadership started immediately after the death of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. If one takes a survey back to the SPLA/SPLM structure, one could not image that such a strong pyramid could easily get destroyed. It is a structure of well oriented brains in carrying out specified targeted goals and objectives. Not just bureaucratic wisdom but physically well built fighters that have challenged all different types of life for over 20 years. They were freedom fighters before they become Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. One of the rare characteristics of the structure is that it reflects young men and women of mid-generation that keep the honor of the struggle. They understand fully the secret policy of LIBERATION which others may not know. They hold it at heart that liberation started in 1983 from Bielpaam and will end when power and responsibilities are handed over to states and local governments from where rebellion started. The CPA is not the last station of liberation as others in power may think. But what is wrong? Should a well designed of 21 years party with thousands and thousands martyrs left in the bush keep power at the centre? What are the rays indicators sent that disturbed the government leadership to make it not to correct itself? No time was allowed for observation as other economic and financial indictors played a very dirty role for the plan to be executed. Nevertheless, it must be understood that in creation there is no rain without clouds preparation that will cause waves before it falls, as there is no normal death without sign of sickness. But what are those signs of diseases that caused to the sickness of SPLA/SPLM? Could they be curses?
PART TWO: The two historical Receptions at Khartoum Airport are forgotten.
Who could imagine that a huge population of Southern Sudanese in Khartoum capital, mostly from displaced camps, who received the SPLA/SPLM advanced team when the CPA was signed on the 9th January 2005, has never been remembered in SSV in national occasions? Over two million Southern Sudanese voluntarily were kept at standby for 48 hours at Khartoum Air port without health facilities, and without something to eat, but waiting to receive SPLA/SPLM carders as from the morning of 2nd to 4th of April 2005. Children who were left one year of age in 1983 by their parents now grown up into (men and women) were hanging up the trees like bats to get clear picture about their fathers if they could recognize them. Women whose husbands were left in the battlefield were gazing through the crowd hoping to tightly hug each other. If that was the kind of reception then, how Dr. John Garang would be received? Khartoum Air Port could not take the whole population that was rapidly increasing because of consecutive of flow of buses reporting from Southern parts of states capitals. The main roads from Khartoum Air Port leading southwards rejected public buses due to too much population walking on foot. Arab Sudanese became more friendly to see Garang alive and calling him a hero. When the SPLA/SPLM leader arrived at the stadium, those trees branches that surround the stadium were turned into seats by those boys, to the extent that they could not tolerate extra weights. The Hero upon seeing the crowd could not stand his tears with heart filled with joy, happiness and great memories. His face showed some difficulty for his tongue to talk as he used expressions. He addressed them in few words of courage with full of expectation for the whole Sudan. Has government of South Sudan after the death of Dr. Garang honored these two occasions in her history. Does SSTV have a copy of this memory just for appreciation? If it is there, has it reflected on it one day to the public after the death of SPLA/SPLM founder? If the government itself does not respect such a national event and never dared to investigate its whereabouts, whom do you think can follow after the death of SPLA/SPLM founder? Do they know how many small children got lost at Khartoum Airport? I did not know why the SPLM Secretariat did not observe the thin size photos of Dr. Garang which being circulated in the stadium square that time? (Please look for them and see them) His photo should have been of big size according to his physique or physical appearance.
PART THREE: The eight bad omens
The first signal of bad omen: …………………….
The death of the hero left severe pain with great sorrow in the heart of every southern Sudanese irrespective of age, gender, economic status religion among others. In my view, if these different categories mentioned were to guard an inherited green farm, (South Sudan), I think the situation we are in would have been averted. Because an old professional would have approached and advised the government and the president in particular of the consequences of such death committed in the national capital that represents the world community. It reflects a bad picture to the sovereign person and country.
In 2006, just immediately after the death of Dr. John Garang de Mabior, the establishment of Government of South Sudan ( GOSS ) was mainly in the hand of SPLA/SPLM leadership and concentrated on the absorption of SPLA/SPLM public personnel in the ministries without giving any consideration to senior technical personnel professionally trained and found inside the country. With great expectation, the senior public servants who were serving in northern Sudan and have obtained rich experiences of specialization, mainly in the Army, police, local government and other civil servants, were totally ignored until the end of absorption. These important technocrats working in the north were left hanging between Khartoum and Juba until the distribution was about to finish when a few got the chance of absorption but not in key positions. The rest, after long wait of expectation and frustration, preferred to return to Khartoum to face blames with pain of regret. At midnight when they rest, different types of memories were recalled and disturbed them when Angels of God were listening. They recall those historical memories and happiness of reception especially when they were in charge of security protection as southern Sudanese. They were assigned to help Khartoum government for this purpose to watch and protect their brothers and sisters who have come home. Some with great regret began to recall the encouraging speeches of late Garang de Mabior quoting the Bible that (“My government has so many rooms “) But there were no rooms for them. General Khamis Mayian Dut, my colleage since first year Bentiu Primary school 1958 had to return to Khartoum then to Medani and lastly got pensioned. (This is not fair). A flesh suffered a flesh and both are temporal in living.
The SECOND signal of bad omen: 2006-2007 First Sharp differences within the SPLM leadership betraying the government. It was not a Nuer made
In SPLM Party, just after the death of Dr. John Garang DE Mabior, the administration of the party system became irresponsible. It never reflected a situation as it had been. Therefore, the chain of command became loose and weak. As such, Sharp differences within the Political Bureau suddenly emerged when Dr. Tilar Deng the present political advisor to president Kiir was accused of exposing SPLM secrets (information and documents) to Khartoum government. Tilar and Alew the present minister of interior were dismissed from the party. This storm within the party leadership caused to some key members to leave the country, among them is Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial, the present Chairman of government negotiation party to leave the country for United Kingdom in 2007. What was really the dispute between the president and Nhial Deng that let Nhial to leave the country and all from one state? God Knows! Surprisingly, it has never been described as Dinka Bhar Elghazal against the system of government. This is history. Today, they are with government of Salva Kiir giving him advice! Of course Nuers in culture do not take such personalities having relation with government system as tribal. They are firm in heart all the time. All in all, SPLM was doing different things establishing her leaders forgetting the vision of our historical founders 1947 round table conference, 1955 Toriet Mutiny, 29th of March 1963 petition to United Nation through United States of America demanding federal system. All were for federal system to be introduced in South Sudan, but who cares to implement the vision? If we leave them to nature because they are dead, but what about their souls, don’t they see and whisper? What causes political differences between SPLA/SPM leaders nowadays? Why are they refusing to implement federal system, the vision of South Sudanese founders?
The THIRD Signal of Bad omen: The Defense Minister plane Crashed-
As earlier said, that the death of Dr. John Garang has left great sorrow in the heart of many. Likewise, it has left lots of questions unresolved as regards to what type of a system to be introduced in south Sudan if people implement the two conditions of the CPA for south to get independence. If prediction of the weak would have been respected by power, many lives would have been saved. The unexpected death of the South Sudan Defense minister, General-Dominick was purely negligence. Why should a big personnel be hired just a cargo transport plane in a rainy season? Lightning can be scary even when you are safely tucked away behind bricks walls on solid ground. So the idea of a bolt striking an electronic – dependent, fuel-filled plane hurtling through the air can be terrifying. Why the minister was not allotted a plane that has conductive path so that the lightning runs around the skin of the aircraft? Why should we risk the lives of passengers boarded the plane when in fact we know Wau town has no Aviation Safety Expert? Airliners are well-equipped to handle lightning bolts. This incident just took place when SPLM party was conducting states conventions all over south Sudan in July 2008. General Dominick has no link at all with the bad omen, but is an indicator. South is being ruled without prediction. Why didn’t SPLM conventions suspended when such incident of big public personnel occurred at least for a month to give chance for evaluation and comments, reading the sky through the night. White people have advanced because they give time and chance for every event to be evaluated and chances for expressions and comments allowed, whether rubbish, clean, sweet, bad, fair and good. However, for us it is the council of ministers presided by the president and no more. Dominic is in Heaven. He never felt the crash, because Soul had already separated when lightning struck the plane. God has given this secret power to people with innocent Souls. Why conventions were not stopped for a while at least for 30 days for mourning. The Minister was a committed SPLA/SPLM general who deserves honor for his soul. It was a rainy season in the whole south where and when natural disasters are expected to happen due to lack of advanced technology in protections. But who is in authority to predict for the government at that time, or at least to caution, may be in a private conversation, that we are doing different things about the Federal System our first founders struggled for since 1947? For what purpose were we fighting and using the word liberation? Bad omens do always appear especially in people’s government to correct or to re-adjust what had been badly planned or wrongly programmed. But who in the government can predict after the death of Garang? God gives prediction to those who have love in lives in their heart. If one loves only himself after independence and has forgotten his country and people how can he predict? Does SPLM know that he is still indebted by not implementing the following old demands:- 1947 Round table Conference asking for federalism, 1955 Toriet Mutiny demanding for Federal System, Southern Sudanese leaders petition on the 29th of March 1963 to United Nation General Assembly through United States of America Demanding for Federal System to be introduced in South Sudan. If all these historical visions in stages are not addressed when we have achieved independence, what expectation do we hold for the future?
The fouth signal of Bad Omen: The rebellion of a Division Commander against the government of President Salva Kiir during National General Elections 2010. Was it called Dinka Revolution against the government system of Kiir Mayardit”
In 2010 general elections, a Division Commander, general Athor from Dinka tribe fought for over one year killing SPLA soldiers and officer against president Kiir government. It had never been regarded as a Dinka Ngok of Atar fighting against a transitional government of Warab. Nobody commented about it. Why? Is it because the president himself never raised a finger about it? If one reflected on the past with critical and analytical mind, it is a clear fact that SPLA was fighting itself without an external force. Why finishing itself? SPLA is military and SPLM is the policy maker? Have they implemented the federal system? Is there no national army General knowing the meaning of national army (SPLA) to comment about it? The National Assembly has not yet even inquired about the actual remaining forces after such fierce wars, despite the pending General elections.
PART THREE: The Fifth Signal of Bad Omen: how the Republican Motto is designed “JUSTICE, LIBERTY and PPROSPERITY” to justify the system of government
The world over, there are several forms of government, e.g. the democratic, the aristocratic, and the monarchic and others including kleptoracy. It is in each form of which a system and type of a government is described. South Sudan gained independence on the 9th July 2011 given the form of a republican government, but which system and type of government is it? Identifying a form of government appears to be easy as governments have an official form. For example, the United States of America is a federal republic, while the former Soviet Union was a socialist republic. However self identification, defining regimes can be tricky. For example, elections are a defining characteristic of democracy, but in practice elections in former Soviet Union were not “free and fair” and took place in a single party state. Thus, in many practical classifications it would not be considered democratic. General Gaafar Mohamed Numeri, the 4th president in the Sudan. Later in 1971, he was elected president winning a referendum with 98.6% votes. He then dissolved the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) and formed the Sudanese Socialist Union (SSU), and in 1973 he drafted a new constitution which declared Sudan to be democratic state and gave considerable power to the office of the president. President Kiir neglected SPLM political Bureau meetings for over nine (9) months resorted to cover up with Liberation Council. The transitional Constitution is an example to that effect like what GAAFER Numeri did. South Sudan after elections has been called republic of South Sudan. The democracy is silent. The Motto (JUSTICE, LIBERTY, and PROSPERITY) describes the system and type of a government. In selection of guiding principle that express the spirit of purpose of the South Sudan in a type of a Motto, I find it hard to really understand how the three words have been balanced. No consideration is given to God who made South Sudan and established SPLA/SPLM in the bush under tall grass( لووم) Having a glance at the motto, JUSTICE comes first before LIBERTY, why? SPLA/SPLM was fighting to (liberate) people and not to (justify) them. With my respect to professionals who have designed the Motto, this motto was planned and designed somewhere and delivered to Nakurent culture centre and publicly passed in a huge public shouts giving no room for comments. Forcing JUSTICE to come before liberty is the proof of bad omen favoring human power to adjust systems of government whenever the power decides. And who is not a sinner, even the president, but is our sin with God a curse? If it were a curse can the Almighty suffered for six days to create the Earth for us to live? Unless the power intends to eliminate its people as we are today. If we want to compare and contrast between Liberty and justice we should cautiously evaluate the historical importance of each to human life in creation and not to ruling power. We are not alone as others would think. We are created liberal by God before justice. “Liberty is freedom and justice is the punishment of the wicked. (34 Bible verses about liberty. Galatians 5:13 ESV/51 helpful votes. ”The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the broken hearted to proclaim LIBERTY to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound” “So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed”. My argument is, if justice means fair treatment of people, or people have equal rights, then who determines the execution of equal right? Who is then responsible for the 15th December violation of equal rights? And if law is above all where are the legal personnel (Justice) in the country on this mass killing? God said “Let us make man in our own image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of heaven” Isaiah 1:17 ESV/74 helpful vote. See how man is valued by God giving him holly power to have dominion over the birds of heaven, should he be suspected of guilt before he is instigated by Satan to commit a crime? Can the world live in peace if crimes are more weighted than good? Justice is a double face, the most coward element power that lives under suspect, being misused power. Why do you suspect him to be guilty when he has just come from heaven to the new world when he is still with God all the time? Why do you suspect him while writing the motto and he has not yet committed an offense? God the power created man liberal and man his son through adventure went and mass up things and when he failed to come back and follow his route, he created justice. Who on earth begins reading a book from last page to the first and write the summary of the book? Liberty first if government wants to correct its path. Why expect evil than good? SPLA/SPLM never fought for justice. It was fighting for liberation. If SPLA/SPLM was fighting for justice, the CPA would have not manifested about the separation of south Sudan. It would have talked about a federal system to be introduced in one country giving any Sudanese freedom of power and responsibility. The law says a suspect is assumed innocent until he is proved guilty. In many nations, presumption of innocent is a legal right of the accused in a criminal trial. Justice gives so many rooms for security men to intimidate citizen or interfere into their freedom as we are in today. The looting of my house and others, from laptop to generator and from bags to cupboards, and from the floor to the roof by government army moving with armed trucks during broad day light, is the human power implementing justice in a type of a system of government that its motto begins with JUSTICE. Does the army looter know what is contained in that Laptop is the articles cautioning the government in vain since 2008? But Liberty has rooms of respect that gives a halt to security personal not to intervene in personal rights at any time. But what caused such Omen?
The sixth signal of Bad Omen: Progressive Peace building between Nuer and Dinka in Jungli state, suddenly cancelled by the Palace in April 2013, why? Is it going to be resumed after the mission is over when peace is restored?
Dr. Riek Machar Teny, in his capacity as the then, Vice President of the Republic with General Kuol Manyang Juuc, former Governor of Jungli state, both were negotiating peace in Bor town last April 2013 between Nuer and Dinka Bor. This peaceful gathering of two big tribes in Jungli state was badly disturbed by an order from the palace whose Motto begins with, JUSTICE. It was order cancelling the peace conference until the massacre took place. Peace can be negotiated at anytime, anywhere, even when there is no war. (This was a bad omen for bad things comingChrist said to his Disciples “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you not as the world giveth unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid” John 14:24
The Seventh signal of Bad Omen: when peace conference held in(New Sudan Hotel) —in Juba was again cancelled by a Presidential Degree in July 2013. Shall it be continued after the massacre?
Despite presidential order, the former Vice president in Juba and particularly in New Sudan Hotel, he still proceeded with peace dialogue and held a peaceful conference which was attended by all the intellectuals of all the tribes in the country. Prof. Abednego Akok Kachual, Chairman of National Election Commission, was the patron. Unfortunately, the Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan & Vice Chairperson of SPLM Political Bureau was again finally surprised by a presidential Decree on the 12th of April 2013 ceasing such powers of peace building. Why stopping peace strategies and plans? This of course is an indicator of bad omen. Shall there be no peace building forever? “Do not be deceived: God is not mocked, for whatever one sow, that will he also reap. For the one who sows to his own flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the spirit will from the spirit reap eternal life” Galatians 6:7 ESV/47 helpful vote
“For he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do not wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer” Roman: 13:4 ESV/12.
The Eigth signal of Bad Omen: Dismissal of elected governors of Unity and Lake States.
The president was elected in 2010 general elections together with ten states governors. What type of a system of government is it that gives the president absolute power removing states governors without due course and consent of states Assemblies? They were elected by the people who elected the president, the power of sovereign people. Don’t they have the same feeling and flesh like the president has? Is it not a bad omen?
Having analyzed all the signals of the bad omen as discussed above, logically, one would realize that the truth behind them stems from the failure of the present SPLM/SPLA to implement the vision of first south Sudan historical and political founders to implement federal system in South Sudan.
Conclusion and Recommendation for the Best system of government to be in introduced in South Sudan in the coming IGAAD summit, January 2015 to correct the path and the only for forgiveness.
It has to be understood by all political leaders, generals and the educated class that no citizen who doesn’t want his government to shine and have a clearly defined political history. By electing the president with high votes is sufficient evidence. But then what brings riots in the system?
The motto of any republican government shows what type of system being introduced. The words of the symbols reflect the system we are in today.
Therefore, the national symbol Motto of the Republic of South Sudan shall read, or can be re-written as “LIBERTY-EQUALITY -PROSPERITY” Before we proceed to the right system of government wet want, let us correct the motto so that the curse is pushed out and give God His respect how He created man liberal and free with equal rights. By pushing the bad omen out we shall be able to implement the vision of our political founders, the vision of federal system in the country. Liberty and prosperity both look systematically. Have the symbol of your country not like a foreigner, but like when you were playing under those tree shadows reflected by the Nile waters and like when we were running after our herds as good boys from good fathers and mothers. We were swimming along with fish in River Ghazal when we wanted to intimidate nature. We threw coins in that white water for who to be the hero in identification under beneath of cold water basin with swift strong current. We look at the country in sixties how it was and not of today when anarchy and greed spread and social gathering changed, friendship is lost. References are hereby made when Rumbek Secondary School was established in Rumbek accommodating Southern Sudanese students without discrimination. The Same unity of the south was in Atar, Bor, Obel and Bentiu Intermediate Schools respectively. Leave that of Yonnyang and Buseri which were established as holly schools of Catholic Church. We were rich in public life and culture based on ethnicity right. It is hereby important to address the motto according to our image as peaceful people. Why do you show your badness instead of goodness? This Motto begins with Justice instead of liberty is subject to change when the country is developing crisis, or when the system revolves itself against its people. French Motto was first made on the 5 December 1790, “French people, Freedom, Equity, Fraternity”. In different context of foreign invasion and federalist revolt 1793 it was modified “Unity, Individuality of the Republic, Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood”. Soon after the revolution, the motto was sometimes written as “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death”. The “death” part was later dropped for being too strongly associated with the reign of terror. (Can “Justice” of Juba massacre be dropped?” This is the picture we can re-adjust our symbol motto to become LIBERTY, JUSTICE and PROSPERITY. Because if you expect evil, evil will come. But if you expect happiness, happiness will come. To prove, this motto of South Sudan was established during independence time when there was total peace. But because there was bad picture (bad plan in heart) the motto was started with JUSTICE instead of LIBERTY. If we try to peep at what is going on in the country, despite our proclamation to God as well as our continuous attendance to God’s House, still SPLM has been disassociated from the word of God. SPLM is that kind of spirit roaming in the heart of every Southern Sudanese believer. If we respect nature, SPLM was created in the bush where nature began and not in towns or cities where greed and selfishness are found. From the bush it rescued the lives of people living in cities and towns, united them and made them a nation when God gave him that power. But if power is misused than expected, no doubt SPLA/SPLM should fight itself recklessly blind as a sign of curse. If scientific certificates in profession were to be obtained to rule or to give proper advices or to lead the unity of a country of many tribes like south Sudan to prosperity, president Kiir would have not boycotted the Political Bureau meetings for nine (9) months, an academic year that ended by Juba Massacre without being advised about the consequences by at least a relative and not a profession. Despite that, the strong national spirit in unity which was built by SPLA/SPLM for (21) years in struggle among the societies of southern Sudanese to make our generations live thousands years without suspicion among themselves, was thrown into flame in one day on the 15th of Dec.2013. Are we really professionals in our different fields? In history a native fight never did that and we all know how they started and how they ended. We have only two professionals who respect their professions and who gives the prescription and advice according to their professions without bias.
One is the medical Dr. and the other is an engineer or Architect and no more. We have witnessed so many cabinet ministers of governments of experience since 1963. However, you only find a government in crisis emerging from within the cabinet and not from provinces or states as we have states today. This friction is not caused by people themselves but by positions exercised by political characters of different specialization. Just like putting on trousers with Jalabia. The outside world is keenly observing our leadership and decision making processes. The president is like a heart of the body. If it gets pain so are the rest of the parts of the body. Therefore, if he is not wise enough with his decisions and advisors, the whole government and country will feel the pain. The pain has to be healed for the whole body to reactivate. I feel no reason why the government in power is so rigid to give up certain decision it takes in negotiation (Win- Win situation). When I’m concluding this article today, I grasped something on SST when Justice Michael Makuey Luedh was briefing Army Generals on about the last peace talk in Addis. There is some suspicion in the explanation of distribution of power by Molana Makuey Luedh, that SPLA/SPLM In opposition should be given 30% or 35% if IGAAD insisted because they did not occupy big territory. My question is, are these percentages for leaders of one country to make them come together as one nation, or for them to come and debate? If for them to come together to form a transitional government, why not divided equal? Has it become a theory or law in our transitional constitution that whoever occupies more land shall deserve more power? When peace is signed should these percentages sit separately in the council of ministers, or as a new team coming to adjust a situation for unity to be retained in the country? Nevertheless, should reconciliation and resettlement awaiting the team be divided according to percentage and as regards to constitution of the country? If the government of president Omer El-Bishier during CPA negotiation gave up some powers including the whole South Sudan, then why government of president Kiir should not accept the demands of SPLA/SPLM in Opposition to share power within one South Sudan and within a limited duration of time, the transitional period?
My best advice as a Southern Sudanese with the little I know about the south since the first movement until today 21/1/2015, it is better for brother Salva Kiir Mayardit, president of the Republic of South Sudan from Warab state to make his own history, and not an artificial history designed by a commission ( a group of people ) For our vigilant other political leaders in the country who knows very well what to be done now, and to save situation, is to recall the vision of our old political historical founders that sough for federalism. If we are African, let us implement the type of system of government liked by our founder politicians. God has shown us events and still we are not faithful to Him. There is no historical and political characteristic of a national figure to be designed by a commission for permanent but rather temporary. Nevertheless, whatever political decision taken by a president for the welfare of all, remains like a glimmering star. I mean that the decision he takes about federalism would be liked by all the neighboring states in the country for hundreds and hundreds of years to come. We should be honest and fair to others. Nuers have been fair throughout history despite the barbaric act of 15ht December 2013 planned against them, still they advice for the sake of the country and people. It is time for president Kiir in the forthcoming peace negotiation to correct the curse by declaring federal system to be introduced in South Sudan. Nobody will declare it except the president. The history will go to him though initiated by the SPLA/SPLM Leader in opposition.
In respect to the above critically observed analysis and experiences, in the different parts, on behalf of the following political founders of South Sudan history:-
- On behalf of our first old Southern Sudanese politicians who demanded Federal system to be applied in South Sudan on Juba Round Table Conference in 1947;
- On behalf of our Southern Sudanese politicians who planned for Toriet mutiny 1955 as the beginning of the first movement following the round table conference;
- On behalf of our old politicians who wrote to United Nation General Assembly on 29th of March 1963 through United States Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary His Excellency Mr. Adllai E Stephenson, demanding federal system to be exercised in South Sudan;
- On behalf of Politicians and students who implemented the first movement 1963-1972;
- On behalf of Sudan People’s (LIBERATION) Army now killing itself, and Sudan (LIBERATION) Movement now split because liberty has not yet reached its destination, the states and local governments;
- On behalf of People of South Sudan, now scattered between UNIMISS camps and mass graves, I propose the following recommendations:
These recommendations however are largely inclined to the notion of liberty as envisaged in not only our motto but also party name (SPLA/SPLM). The only remaining challenge is that how many Generals, Politicians, why letter (L) used both in SPLA and SPLM? What is the destination the last destination of LIBERATION after the CPA was signed? Is Juba the last destination for liberty where powers and responsibility of 647,095 Square miles are exercised? Liberty must reach the grass root. Let power and responsibility take their way home where we started liberation among our people. They are thirsty to get the taste of authority and decision making as the people of land and resources.
Since independence of former Sudan, South Sudan has been ruled since 1956 up to today January 2015 under central power as if South Sudan never rebelled. Should our late political leaders, the Founding Fathers who started the history of this nation since 1947 be oil discovery of oil, be denied today for Federal system? It has to be noted by all and especially legal and administrative bodies, that South Sudan Republican Government was established on the 9th of July 2011 from the territories of the (10) ten states governments already established before 21 years old under Federal Republican Central Bureau, Feb 1994. In the forth coming peace negotiation of Feb.2015, it will be a great mistake and probably misleading if any transitional government is decided and signed without federal system to be introduced in South Sudan. It shall be a carried forwards of THREE years Transitional Government, a parliamentary democratic republican federal system of government.
There shall be a parliamentary federal system of three levels of governments:-
- Federal State Government
- States Federal Governments
- Local governments.
Under juba incident of 15th Dec. 2013 caused to the crisis and massacre and fighting among the SPLA forces still going on until today. This is to view centralized power as a threat to rights and liberty of the people. The Constitution proposed a Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan that shall restrict the power of the central government, by dividing power between two levels of government, national and state as one of the solution to these problems. The constitution of South Sudan shall spell out the powers of the Federal Government, the 21 States government, and local government; of there shall be the president who represents the whole country, its legitimacy and unity, and the prime minister who is the leader of South Sudan Government and defines the guidelines for the government policies which is the executive branch of the federal government, and the Legislature. The ministers represent their own areas of responsibility independently within these guidelines.
After mass killing of citizens by government soldiers in the capital city Juba where sovereignty is, a government within a government is now possible because both national and state government came to grant authority from the sovereign people. It has to be noted with keen attention that South Sudan Republican government was established on the 9th July 2011 from the territory of South Sudan (10) ten federal states government already established 21 years ago under Federal Republican Bureau, February 1994. State and national power could work concurrent over the same territory (SS) and the same population because they focus on different things. The state focuses on local matters, and national government on more concern. If suppose there are central ministers opposed to federalism, who knows they will become states ministers tomorrow in their respective states.
The national federal government shall have control over issues that affect the entire country, such as war or international trade. A federal Supreme Court with judges elected for four years’ term by federal Assembly.
However, state and local governments retain authority to regulate issues within their own territory.
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. South Sudan shall have two court systems: Federal and state. While each court would hear certain types of cases and is completely independent of the other. But the national government also has judicial authority to resolve controversies between two or more states and citizens of different states.
The local governments will constitute Counties, Towns, and Municipality and each with local Council that elects its Mayor. The two systems often interact and share the goals of fairly handling legal issues.
Why federal system type of governance?
The more federalism is delayed in the country, the more good relation is denied between neighboring states. The diversity created by allowing states to govern within their own borders can increase competition among states. States not only compete to be the best place to live, they also compete for business and investment.
The ability to experiment with new policies on a smaller level allow states to serve as a testing ground for new ideas and create innovative solutions to problems. If other states compare the policy change in one state, they will quickly adopt policies that seem to work. Cooperation looking to build a new plant or invest in an economy seeks out states with the fewest regulations and the lowest taxes.
In understanding to other countries, federal system has been a dynamic framework for government, and a characteristic that fits well the changing nature of people’s society. The federal system is associated with appropriate service delivery which is tailored to the actual needs of the area as opposed to national central command.
Whoever is delaying federalism is delaying strong and comprehensive unity of South Sudan under a federal system supposed to be acquainted now by all. Whoever makes it now is rapidly cultivating strong relationship between states governments sharing common issues and interest at boarder, and especially infrastructure. E,g like high way roads, economic and agricultural policies, grazing policies. Boarder security between two states or more is not a central job. Things which are done underneath without being reflected to all, always create no trust between people of one nation and such bad games are easily discovered because God wouldn’t allow it to proceed. Let things be done according to public interest as well world reflection, but not basing one tribe. If we dictate because somebody holds power, that somebody is misled. Power is temporary. I wish we know the word of God. Who rejects federalism is betraying the vision of South Sudan history founders. Our history never started recently in 1983 SPLA/SPLM. It started way back before Oil could be discovered in 1947 Juba Round Table Conference between South and North chaired by the colonial power, that federal system should be introduced in South Sudan as the claim of our old politicians. Our present leaders in government have betrayed the vision of our historical founders. Is it because of Oil or greed for power? Whose observation is keen, will realize that the attitude of the government shall sooner than later drive us to what Khartoum used to do by attacking our historical founders in general meetings about South Sudan question “What do southerners want?” (الجنوبيون دول ديرين شنو-) Let us not show terrible way of ruling than Khartoum, since Khartoum surrendered the whole South with its Oil.
South Sudan is a tribal state of at least 64. All these cause complexity in tribes and religious groups resulting into different cultural and moral values to social, economic and political issues. Such a nation to be governed from the centre would be much difficult because such differences need to be addressed by the people themselves from near. Central government always makes other group of people redundant depending on central power to get everything ready. It makes councils lazy to identify resources; and as such local government has become politicized. The type of local government officers nowadays are not the ones we were. The tribal fights between tribes alone in Dinka land and Nuer land are central influences, especially in Rumbek and Northern Bhar Alghazal. As such, federalism enhances democracy by providing a platform for effective criticism and opposition to governmental policies and practices.
Since independence of former Sudan 1956 to date, South Sudan has been under 59 years centralized system of governments as if it had never rebelled to liberate its people. Should our people and old politicians who started the movement be denied the vision because of Oil or that they dead? Who is that economist who denies that there is no Royal Tax in the world? Besides who is that old local government officer will ever deny that he had never budgeted “ROYAL TAX ON TOBACCO” in his Annual yearly Budget in 60’s and 70’s before oil was discovered? Truly there are districts that do not budget Royalty on Tobacco because it does not thrive well in that environment. But did those districts possessing tobacco were prevented by central power Khartoum or regional government to Budget for it and collect it because other district councils do not possessed it? Oil tax and Gas tax come in all shape and size. There are County Royal Tax, state Royal Taxes, and Federal Royalty Tax, all of which add up to significant Tax bill for minerals. The information to everybody is that, on oil well might be extracted from two different Counties; Municipalities might have very little in the way of drilling within their boundaries. The power that shall be retained by state and local government makes them more responsive to the people and increases citizen involvement in government. While this put federal system at an advantage over unitary national government. One of the most characteristic in federalism, that it makes each state responsible to its natural norms and characteristic in regards to social behavior to differentiate from the mixed newly imitating central culture being supported by power of all people. (Because of oil discovery and centralization district have abandoned collecting Royalty revenue including Tobacco but when they become sole independent from the central power they will resort to old revenue, collecting and budgeting them). Besides where there is security there is revenue and where is revenue there is security e.g Poll tax from cows if introduced it will reduce insecurity because the government will know the number of cows held by each and reduce theft.
The states governments are the federal parliamentary states and have to be guaranteed republican form of government, provided that no state can create sovereignty
By comparison, Americans have long believe that centralized power threatens liberty, and they traditionally have feared mostly the use of power by a distant national government, like the case of Juba crisis 15/12/2013 that led to thousands of Nuer massacred. The American experiment in government allowed both states and national governments to coexist as separate and independent units, each with a separate sphere of authority because both exist to serve the people. In experiment the United States called states laboratories for democracy, and for good reasons. Innovation programs and policies from welfare and education reform to health and safety regulation repeatedly have come first from state government. A federal government also expands participation in policies and government. The more levels of governments, the greater the opportunity to vote and hold more offices. State and local government can elect thousand of office holders, compare to the two officials, the president and Vice president shall be elected by people at large.
The three years’ transitional period is suggested due to the following difficulties that may be encountered during implementation of federal system in the country is allowed: – First of all, the two groups or three distributing percentages, such power distributed will never work as distributed. It will work as one body entrusted a very honest and holly task to bring things right. They work as a team and not encountering team. They have been entrusted a national task to correct the path. They are rebuilding a destroyed temple. I prefer to use the word temple deliberately to emphasize the holiness of the mission.
- Putting the structure correct needs time as federal system is proposed. This period will sufficiently enable the transitional government to identify issues in regards to the challenges that may affect the implementation of the transitional period. Case like security, peace and security and especially how to bring back people’s confidence on government. Compensation and peace building and many others.
- Reconciliation is not just (MALAESH or sorry) and finish. During the past two years, sharp differences and conflicts have emerged between different parties politically, economically and social-cultural. During this period reconciliatory measures will be sought for better future.
- Complete destructions that occurred all over the Country, compared to financial ability of the country after too much exhaustion of public funds because of war and other commitments, coupled with huge figures of debts awaiting the new transitional government would be a compromising time. SPLM IN opposition seeking for peace as shadow government has also its national commitment wherever they are in South Sudan to render social services to citizens of South Sudan and those displaced. Diplomatic relations, accommodation and logistics including peace conferences for peace to come are national issues subject to settlement. The one in government today will say the rebel has no right, and when out tomorrow he will say the SPLA/SPLM in opposition was right because he was also serving people coming to serve and be served.
- Government of transitional period is the key time in reconciliation, it needs ample time to evaluate different situations, and select a joint legal and administrative body to write the Constitution of the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN. This cannot be made in one year.
Should Crimes committed, be released or not?
This is where culture comes in. I would like only to have a brief comment about the relationship between Nuer Culture and government in crimes during the British rule. During my short experience in local government (1976-2000), they both concluded that, the relationship between Nuer culture and the government in crimes is like the covenant between the necklace and the neck itself. The neck has no necklace to claim when the necklace decides to disappear or is taken by the owner for reasons known to her. The necklace also never gives any notice to neck when and why is being taken away, because it is not authorized to do so. Therefore, any case that is before the court of law is not tempered with. The only worry is when the convict is not produced to court of justice, and not the justice of 15th December 2013. For the massacre of 2013, it is the Kaki force, Kaki mean military uniform that was killing and not citizens or tribe. People were in their houses kept indoors for as from 15/12/2013 Sunday night up to January 2013, only government forces and security patrolling Juba town. No Dinka and Nuer came to Juba town with their spears to fight. The endless fighting going on and continued killing is the same fight of the attempted coup which has not yet being legally resolved by not only Juba but also the world, leave IGAAD that had already taken side. The decision of Juba court is not respected by power owing to the belief of attempted coup. Was it really an attempted coup or a trick to massacre innocent lives? IGAAD is completely wavering rejecting to address the root cause, while preferring and taking the line of compromise silently and never talked about the massacre. If compromise is the modern procedures in solving deaths caused by government amounting to massacres in African nations, then I think is better we resort to our African traditional chiefs courts. But if the criminal is a government power, where do we resort to? My best advice to our African leaders is that any slight blame that touches them touches us most because we are the nation, and without us no leader is blamed. Let IGAAD and African Union look out this time that, when they realize that the United Nation and the white people are moving slowly as if they are ignorant about the whole case (since 2006-up to Sunday night 15/12/2013) they are just testing African leaders of today century whether they are honest and competent to resolve crimes against their people, or appreciate them and bend low.
In execution of the above recommendation of fedral system, leaders have to take caution of (The Transitional Federal Republican Government (TFRG):
- Broad decision making and sharing of information. They should listen and attach value to people’s ideas, and not to be partisan hearing from one tribe.
- Exhibit utmost fairness, justice and transparency for accountability purposes
- Constitute a team of vigilant, knowledgeable and experienced patriotic gallant men and women of South Sudan for the efficient attainment of the intended objectives.
- We are writing history and not applications for jobs. We are recording history not for today, but for future generation to follow our route and to justify us individually. God gives governments to world leaders to rule their people peacefully and honestly. He gave them such power to protect the soul in the veins of human flesh not to be poured to the soil he was made by. It is a secret covenant between Him the Lord and the leaders of all nations. But do they know it? If leaders rebuke their subjects, then what does God do? He does not kill, but also rebukes, but how? Please think well?
“Let your desire be for peace with all men, and to be made holly without which no man may see the Lord”
John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government officer